Search Here Questions and Answers about Education and Jobs!

Featured Post

General Knowledge for Competitive Examinations

General Knowledge (GK) makes Integral Part of many competitive examinations in India. The GK Test examine your awareness and abilities fr...

Sunday, December 31, 2017

General Knowledge for Competitive Examinations

General Knowledge (GK) makes Integral Part of many competitive examinations in India. The GK Test examine your awareness and abilities from in and around your surroundings. In this portion questions are asked from day to day life experiences. Generally, whether its and admission test or recruitment exam questions are asked from the areas those we discuss often among friends, family, or listen over radio, television and social media etc.

Indian Polity: General Knowledge for Competitive Examinations

In competitive examinations like scholarships test, admission tests, eligibility tests, and general competitions etc questions are asked in subject matter related Indian Politics. Here are lessons to prepare for different competitive exams like UPSC, SSC, PSC, NDA, Banking, Railways, Insurance etc.

Indian Polity and Constitution

Regulating Act of 1773

Important Parliamentary / Constitutional Terms

Act: This refers to - a Bill passed by both  Houses of Parliament and assented to by the President.

Ad hoc Committee: This refers to - a Committee constituted by the House or by the Chairman or by the presiding officers of both the Houses jointly to consider and report on specific matter and becomes functus officio as soon as the task is completed.

The Official Languages of India

  • Article 343 of the Indian Constitution recognises Hindi in Devanagari script as the official language of the union; the Constitution also allows for the continuation of use of the English language for official purposes.

Appointment of Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners

  • The President appoints Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners.
  • Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners have tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years and 62 years respectively, whichever is earlier. They enjoy the same status and receive salary and perks as available to Judges of the Supreme Court of India.

Chief Election Commissioners of India:

The following have held the post of the Chief Election Commissioner of India:

1. Sukumar Sen: 21 March 1950 to 19 December 1958

2. K.V.K. Sundaram: 20 December 1958 to 30 September 1967

Election

Election Commission of India
The Election Commission of India was established on January 25, 1950 (under Article 324 of Constitution of India)

Functions of the Public Service Commission:

  • The Union and State Public Service Commissions shall conduct examinations for appointment to the Union and State services respectively.
  • To assist the States in framing the operating schemes of joint recruitment for any services for which candidate possessing special qualifications are required if two or more states make such a request to the Union Public Service Commission.

Public Service Commission

  • The Constitution of India provides for a Public Service Commission namely Union Public Service Commission or UPSC for the Union and State Public Service Commissions of State PSCs or a Joint Public Service Commission for group of states.

Articles under Part XVIII: Emergency Provisions

  • Article 352: Proclamation of Emergency
  • Article 353: Effect of Proclamation of Emergency
  • Article 354: Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation

Emergency Provisions in India

Part XVIII of the Constitution of India contains Articles 352-360 which deals with 'Emergency Provisions'. There are three kinds of provisions according to the Constitution.

  • National Emergency
  • State Emergency
  • Financial Emergency

Inter-State Relations

  • Article 131 of the Constitution of India provides for the judicial determination of disputes between states by vesting the Supreme Court with exclusive jurisdiction in the matter, while Article 262 of the Constitution provides for the adjudication of once class of such disputes by an extra judicial tribunal.

National Integration Council

  • Formation - 2 June 1962
  • Type -     Government advisory body
  • Purpose/focus     - Address the problems of communalism, casteism and regionalism
  • Region served - India
  • Membership -    150
  • Chairman – Prime Minister of India

National Development Council

  • The National Development Council (NDC) or the Rashtriya Vikas Parishad is the apex body for decision making and deliberations on development matters in India, presided over by the Prime Minister.

Five Year Plans of India

The economy of India is based in part on planning through its five-year plans, which are developed, executed and monitored by the Planning Commission. Prior to the fourth plan, the allocation of state resources was based on schematic patterns rather than a transparent and objective mechanism, which led to the adoption of the Gadgil formula in 1969. Revised versions of the formula have been used since then to determine the allocation of central assistance for state plans.

Planning Commission

  • The Planning Commission is an institution in the Government of India, which formulates India's Five-Year Plans, among other functions.
  • The composition of the Commission has undergone a lot of change since its inception. With the Prime Minister as the ex-officio Chairman, the committee has a nominated Deputy Chairman, who is given the rank of a full Cabinet Minister.
  • Cabinet Ministers with certain important portfolios act as part-time members of the Commission, while the full-time members are experts of various fields like Economics, Industry, Science and General Administration.

Chairman’s of Finance Commission


Finance Commission
Constituted
Chairman
Operational Duration
First
1951
K.C Niyogy
1952-57
Second
1956
K.Santhanam
1957-62

Finance Commission

The Finance Commission constituted by the President pursuant to clause (1) of article 280 of the Constitution.

It was formed to define the financial relations between the centre and the state. The Finance Commission Act of 1951 states the terms of qualification, appointment and disqualification, the term, eligibility and powers of the Finance Commission. As per the Constitution, the commission is appointed every five years and consists of a chairman and four other members.

Inter-State Council

The Inter-State Council is a recommendatory body of the Government of India set up under Article 263 of Indian constitution, with duties to investigate and discuss the subjects of common interest between the Union and State(s) or among the States, making recommendations particularly for better coordination of policy and action on these subjects and deliberating upon such other matters of general interest to the States which may be referred to it by its Chairman. The Council also deliberates upon such other matters of general interest to the States as may be referred by the Chairman to the Council.

Jurisdiction and Seats of High Courts


Name
Estd. In the Year
Territorial Jurisdiction
Seat
Allahabad
1866
Uttar Pradesh
Allahabad (Bench at Lucknow)

The High Court

  • Presently there are 21 High Courts in India. Consists of Chief Justice & other such judges as appointed by the President.
  • The Constitution, unlike in the case of the Supreme Court, does not fix any maximum number of judges for a High Court. A judge of a High Court can be transferred to another High Court without his consent by the President.
  • The Chief Justice of India is also consulted. The opinion provided by him shall have primacy and is binding on the President.

List of Chief Justice of Supreme Court


Name
Tenure
From
To
Hiralal J. Kania
26.01.1950
26.11.1951
M. Patanjali Shastri
07.11.1951
03.01.1954
Mehar Chand Mahajan
04.11.1954
22.12.1954

Public Interest Litigation (PIL)

  • Any member of the public can now initiate a proceeding on behalf of the aggrieved person ( esp. if the person is too poor or unable to move the court on his or her own ) in either the High Court or the Supreme Court for enforcement of constitutional rights.

Supreme Court of India

  • The Supreme Court of India stands at the apex of the judicial system of India.
  • It consists of Chief Justice & 30 other judges.

Municipalities

  • The Part IX A of the Constitution of India gives a constitutional foundation to the local self government units in urban area.
  • Most provisions for municipalities are similar to those written in Part IX, i.e. Structure, Reservation of Seats, Functions, Sources of Information etc.

Panchayati Raj

Ensures the direct participation of people at the grass root level.

In 1956, the National Development Council appointed a committee under Balwant Rai Mehta, which submitted its report in 1957 in which it recommended :

  • A 3 – tier structure consisting of Zila Parishad at the District Level, Panchayat Samiti at the Block Level and Gram Panchayat at the Village Level.
  • Genuine transfer of power & responsibility to these institutions.
  • Adequate resources to them.
  • All social & economic development programs channelized through these.

Saturday, December 30, 2017

Special Position of Jammu & Kashmir

Under Part XXI of the Constitution of India, which deals with “Temporary, Transitional and Special provisions”, the State of Jammu and Kashmir has been accorded special status under Article 370. Even though included in 1st Schedule as 15th state, all the provisions of the Constitution which are applicable to other states are not applicable to J&K. For example, till 1965, J&K had a Sadr-e-Riyasat for Governor and Prime Minister in place of Chief Minister.

Ordinance Making Power of the Governor: (Article 213)

The law making power in state is vested in the state assembly. But there may be situations when state assembly is not in session and it is necessary to make laws for the state. In these circumstances Article 213 of the constitution provides that Governor of the state can promulgate ordinance. The following are the major provisions:

If at any time, when the legislative assembly of the state is not in session, or where there is a legislative council in the state, when both houses of legislature are not in session and the Governor satisfies that it is necessary to make law then he can promulgate ordinances.

The Veto Power of the Governor of State

When a bill is brought before the Governor of a State after its approval by the House of the Legislature, the Governor can-

  • Agree with the will and it becomes a law.
  • Withhold the bill.
  • Withhold a bill and return with a message.
  • Reserve a bill for the consideration by the President.

Comparison of Legislative Procedures between Bi-cameral State Legislature and the Parliament

  • Related money bills, the position are the same.
  • On other bills council can interpose a delay of 3 months period. In case of disagreement, the bill is second send to the legislative council and this time council has no power to withhold the bill for more than a month.

The Advocate General

  • In India, an Advocate General is a legal adviser to a state government. The post is created by the Constitution of India and corresponds to that of Attorney General of India at the federal or central or union government level.

The Discretionary Functions of the Governor of State

Under special circumstance the Governor may act without the advice of the Council of Ministers. In other words, such powers of the Governor are exercised in his/her own discretion. They are:

A situation may arise when in the opinion of the Governor there is the breakdown of
the constitutional machinery in the State. In such a case, the Governor may report the
situation to the President for imposition of the President’s Rule in that State. As the
Governor exercises this power on his/her own, it is called the discretionary power of
the Governor. In case the Governor’s report is accepted by the President, and he/she
proclaims emergency under Article 356, the State Council of Ministers is removed,
and the State Legislative Assembly is either dissolved or put under suspension. During such emergency, the Governor rules on behalf of the President.

State Legislature in India

The State Legislature can be: Unicameral i.e One House or Bicameral i.e Two House

Following States has Bicameral Status :
Seven Indian States, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Bihar, Jammu-Kashmir, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh, have bicameral Legislatures, these are called legislative councils (Vidhan Parishad)

Chief Minister and the State Council of Ministers

  • The Chief Minister (CM) is the real executive head of the Government at the State level.
  • The position of Chief Minister at the State level is analogous to the position of the Prime Minister at the Center.
  • Chief Ministers are appointed by the Governor of the State. Other Ministers in the State Council are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister.

Powers and Functions of Governor of State

The Governor enjoys many different types of powers:

  • Executive powers related to administration, appointments and removals,
  • Legislative powers related to lawmaking and the state legislature, that is Vidhan Sabha or Vidhan Parishad,
  • Discretionary powers to be carried out according to the discretion of the Governor.

The Governor and Lieutenant-Governor

  • The Governors and Lieutenant-Governors of the states and territories of India have similar powers and functions at the state level as that of the President of India at Union level.
  • Governors exist in the states while Lieutenant-Governors exist in union territories and in the National Capital Territory of Delhi.

Thursday, December 28, 2017

Special Powers of Rajya Sabha

  • According to Article 249, the Parliament will be able to make law in relation to a subject in the State List if the Rajya Sabha, with the support of at least two-thirds of its members present and voting, adopts a proposal to the effect that the Parliament, in national interest, should make law in relation to that subject in the State List.

Special powers of the Lok Sabha

  • The Money and the Financial Bills can only originate in the Lok Sabha.
  • In case of a Money Bill, the Rajya Sabha has only the right to make recommendations and the Lok Sabha may or may not accept the recommendation. Also, a Money Bill must be passed by the Upper House within a period of 14 days. Otherwise, the Bill shall be automatically deemed to be passed by the House. Thus, the Lok Sabha enjoys exclusive legislative jurisdiction over the passage of the Money Bills.

Leader of the Opposition

  • Each House of the Parliament of India has a Leader of the Opposition. While the position also existed in the former Central Legislative Assembly of British India, and holders of it there included Motilal Nehru, it got statutory recognition through the Salary and Allowances of Leaders of Opposition in Parliament Act, 1977.

Important Parliamentary Terms in relation to the functioning of Parliament of India

Question Hour: During the parliamentary session, the day's business normally begins with the question hour. The Ministers reply to the questions raised by the members of the Parliament.
Zero Hour: The period follows the question hour and it starts at the noon and its duration is one hour (from 12 noon to 1 P.M.). During the zero hour, various issues of public importance are raised without prior notice.

Parliament of India: Important Facts

•    The President is an integral part of the Parliament as it takes part in the legislative process.
•    The first elections to the Lok Sabha were held in 1952 and the first Parliament under the new Constitution was constituted in May, 1952. However, from the date of commencement of the new Constitution e.g. January 26, 1950 till the formation of new elected Parliament e.g. May 1952, the Constituent Assembly acted as the provisional Parliament. Also it should be noted that the Constituent Assembly resolved on August 27, 1947 that the Constituent Assembly shall act as the Union Legislature till the date of Commencement of new Constitution.

Difference between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha

  • Members of Lok Sabha are directly elected by the eligible voters. Members of Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of State Legislative Assemblies in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote.
  • The normal life of every Lok Sabha is 5 years only while Rajya Sabha is a permanent body.

Lok Sabha

Parliamentary institutions in India, with all their modern ramifications, owe their origin to India's British connections. Until 1853, there was no legislative body distinct from the Executive. The Charter Act of 1853, for the first time provided some sort of a legislature in the form of a 12 member Legislative Council. The Indian Independence Act, 1947 declared the Constituent Assembly of India to be a full sovereign body. Apart from being a Constitution drafting body, it also assumed full powers for the governance of the country. With the coming into force of the Constitution on 26 January, 1950, the Constituent Assembly functioned as the Provisional Parliament until the first Lok Sabha, then known as the House of People, and was constituted following General Elections in 1952. Lok Sabha, the Hindi nomenclature was adopted on 14 May, 1954.

Rajya Sabha

The origin of Rajya Sabha can be traced back to 1919, when in pursuance to the Government of India Act, 1919, a second chamber known as the Council of States was created. This Council of States, comprising of mostly nominated members was a deformed version of second chamber without reflecting true federal features. The Council continued to function till India became independent. The Rajya Sabha, its Hindi nomenclature was adopted in 23 August, 1954.

The Parliament of India

  • The Parliament of India is the supreme legislative body in India.
  • The Parliament of India founded in 1919.
  • The Parliament alone possesses legislative supremacy and thereby ultimate power over all political bodies in India.

The Comptroller & Auditor General of India

  • The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India is an authority, established by the Constitution of India under Chapter V, who audits all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the state governments, including those of bodies and authorities substantially financed by the government.

The Attorney-General of India

  • The Attorney General is the first law officer of the government of India.
  • He is appointed by the President of India under Article 76(1) of the Constitution and holds office during the pleasure of the President. He must be a person qualified to be appointed as a Judge of the Supreme Court.

The Union council of Ministers

  • The Cabinet of India (officially called the Union Council of Ministers of India ) is the collective decision-making body of the Government of India.
  • The Union council consists of the Prime Minister and 35 Cabinet Ministers, the most senior of the government ministers. The Cabinet is the ultimate decision-making body of the executive within the Westminster system of government in traditional constitutional theory.

The Vice President

The Vice President of India is the second-highest office in India, after the President. The Vice President is elected indirectly by an electoral college consisting members of both houses of the Parliament. The Vice President would ascend to the Presidency upon the death, resignation, impeachment, or other situations leading to the vacancy in the Office of President. The normal function of the Vice President is to serve as the Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

List of Presidents of India since 1950


Presidents of India
Birth/death
Tenure
Dr.Rajendra Prasad
1884-1963
01/26/50
Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan
1888-1975
05/13/62
Zakir Hussain
1897-1969
05/13/67

The Powers and Functions of the President of India

Executive Powers - Article 53- All executive powers of the Union are vested in him. These powers are exercised by him either directly or through subordinate officers in accordance with the Constitution. The Supreme Command of the Defence Force is vested on the President and the exercises it in accordance with law.

Executive of the Union

  • Executive power of the Union is vested in the President, and is exercised by him / her either directly or through officers subordinates to President in accordance with the Constitution of India.
  • The President is also the Supreme commander of defence forces of the Indian Union.
  • The President summons, prorogues, addresses, sends messages to Parliament and dissolves the Lok Sabha, promulgates Ordinances at any time, except when both Houses of Parliament are in session, makes recommendations for introducing financial and bills and gives assent to bills, grants pardons, reprieves, respites or remission of punishment or suspends, and remits or commutes sentences in certain cases.

Procedure for amending the constitution

The procedure of amending the constitution is given in Article 368. It says that the parliament can amend the constitution under its constituent power. A bill must be presented in either house of the parliament and must be approved by a majority of each houses and not less than 2/3 majority of each house present and voting.

Fundamental Duties

By the 42nd Amendment of the Constitution, adopted in 1976, Fundamental Duties of the citizens have also been enumerated. Article 51 ‘A’ contained in Part IV A of the Constitution deals with Fundamental Duties. These enjoinupon a citizen among other things, to abide by the Constitution, to cherish and follow noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom, to defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so and to promote harmony and spirit of common brotherhood amongst all people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities.
The Most Important Ten Fundamental Duties of Citizens in accordance with the constitution of India are listed below-
  • Respect the Constitution, the national flag and the national anthem;
  • Cherish the noble ideals of the freedom struggle;
  • Uphold and project the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;

Directive Principles of State Policy

The constitution laid down certain guidelines in the Constitution to be followed by the governments while administering the state. These guidelines are contained in Section IV of the Constitution and are known as the Directive Principles of State Policy.

Fundamental Rights

The Fundamental Rights in Indian constitution acts as a guarantee that all Indian citizens can and will live their lifes in peace as long as they live in Indian democracy. They include individual rigts common to most liberal democracies, such as equality before the law, freddom of speech and expression, freedom of association and peaceful assembly, freedom of religion, and the right to constitutional remedies for the protection of civil right.

Citizenship

The Indian Constitution, which came into force on 26th January 1950 provides for single citizenship for the entire country. Matters concerning Indian citizenship are contained in Articles 5 to 11 in Part II of the constitution of India.

New States in India after 1950

Andhra Pradesh - Created by the State of Andhra Pradesh Act 1953 by carving our some areas from the State of Chennai.

Gujarat and Maharashtra - The State of Bombay was divided into two States i.e. Maharashtra and Gujarat by the Mumbai (Reorganisation) Act 1960.

The Union and Its Territories

  • Article 1 of the Constitution describes India as a Union of States.
  • The expression ‘Union of India’ should be distinguished from the expression ‘ Territory of India’.
  • The ‘Union’ includes only the states which enjoy the status of being members of the federal system and share a distribution of power with the Union , the term ‘territory of India’ includes the entire territory over which the sovereignty of India, for the time being extends. viz. (1) Union Territories and (2) such other territories as may be acquired by  India.

The Preamble of the Constitution of India

The Preamble of the Constitution of India read as follows-

WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a [SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC] and to secure to all its citizens:

The Federal and Unitary Features of Indian Constitution

Federal Features of Indian Constitution


Supremacy of the Constitution: The constitution is supreme. Both, the Union and the State Governments, shall work within the limits set by the Constitution and both the union government and the central government derive their powers from the constitution.

Written Constitution: The Constitution of India is a written constitution; it is the most elaborate Constitution of the world.

The Key Features of Indian Constitution

The long experience of authoritarian rule under the colonial state convinced Indians that free India should be a democracy in which everyone should be treated equally and be allowed to participate in government. Here are provided the key features of the Indian Constitution.

Some Important Amendments of the Constitution of India

The 1st Constitutional Amendment Act, 1951
In June 1951, the 1st Constitutional Amendment Act was passed, and the following Amendment in the Constitution were added: (i) To Article 15, a new clause (4) was added: (ii) changes were made in clauses (2) and (6) of Article 19; (iii) After Article 31, Article 31A and 31B were added; (iv) For Original Article 85, a new Article was substituted; (v) In Article 87, clauses (1) and (2) were restructured; (vi) For the Original Article 174, a new Article was substituted; (vii) In Article 176, clauses (1) and (2) were restructured: (viii) Clause (1) of Article 341 was restructured; and similarly, clause (1) of Article 342, sub-clause (a) of Article 342, sub clause (a) of clause (3) of Article 372, and clause (1) of Article 376 were also restructured; (ix) After the Eight Schedule to the Constitution a Ninth Schedule was added and thirteen laws passed by the State Legislatures were included in it so that those Acts might not be challenged in courts.

Tuesday, December 26, 2017

Schedules of Indian Constitution

The constitution of India at the time of adoption had only eight Schedules to which four more were added during the succeeding 60 years.

  • First Schedule deals with territories of 28 states and seven union territories of the Indian Union.
  • Second Schedule deals with salaries, allowances etc. of President, Vice President, Speaker, Judges of Supreme Court and High Courts, Comptroller and Auditor General etc.

Important Articles of the Constitution of India

Articles - Subject
Part I
Ar . 1 – 4 – The Union and its Territory

Part II

Art. 5 to 11 – Citizenship

Part – III : Fundamental Rights

Art. 14.  Equality before law.
Art. 15. Prohibition of discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
Art. 16.  Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment.
Art. 17.  Abolition of Untouchability.
Art. 18.  Abolition of titles.

Sources of the Indian Constitution

The frame of the constitution was built on the basis of Government of India Act, 1935. However, many ideas were brought from other constitutions of the world as listed below-

  • Government of India Act 1935 - The federal scheme, Office of the Governor, Role of federal judiciary, Emergency provisions.
  • UK Constitution - Law making procedures, Parliamentary Government, Rule of Law, Single citizenship, Cabinet system
  • Canadian Constitution - Federal system, Federation with strong centre, Residuary powers in the centre

Members of Drafting Committee of Constitution of India

Drafting Committee, which bore the responsibility of drafting the Constitutional document during the recess of the Constituent Assembly, from July 1947 to Sept 1948, was formed on Aug 29, 1947.

Working of Constituent Assembly

  • December 9, 1946 : The first meeting of Constituent Assembly was held in the constitution hall(now 'Central Hall of Parliament House'). Demanding a separate state, the Muslim League boycotted the meeting. Dr.Sanchidanand Sinha was elected as temporary President of Assembly following the French practice.

Committees under the Constituent Assembly

  • Committee on the Rules of procedure - Rajendra Prasad
  • Drafting Committee - B.R. Ambedkar
  • Steering Committee - Rajendra Prasad

The Constituent Assembly and Making of Indian Constitution

The Constituent Assembly was set up while India was still under British rule, following negotiations between Indian leaders and members of the 1946 Cabinet Mission to India from the United Kingdom. The Assembly members were elected to it indirectly by the members of the individual provincial legislative assemblies, and initially included representatives for those provinces which came to form part of Pakistan, some of which are now within Bangladesh. The Constituent Assembly had 217 representatives, including 15 women.

The Indian Independence Act, 1947

Indian Independence Act was passed in June 1947, which specified the following:
  • The British rule of India should be over on the midnight of August 15, 1947.
  • An independent dominion of India shall be created out of the United Provinces, Central Provinces, Bombay Presidency, Madras Presidency, the Carnatic, East Punjab, West Bengal, Assam and the Northeast Frontier Agency. The territories of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and the Lakshadweep Islands are also turned over to the Indian Dominion.

The Mountbatten Plan

Lord Mountbatten worked out a detailed plan for the transfer of power to the Indian people. The salient features of the Mountbatten plan were as follows-

  • Muslim-dominated areas may be separated to form a Dominion In that case such domination would be constituted by a partition of Bengal and the Punjab.
  • A referendum in North-West Frontier Province would decide whether it should join Pakistan or not.

Cabinet Mission Plan

Main Provisions of the Cabinet Mission Plan:
  • The Cabinet Mission proposed two-tiered federal plan which was expected to maintain national unity while conceding the largest measure of regional autonomy:
  • There was to be a federation of the provinces and the States, with the federal central controlling only defence, foreign affairs and communications.

Cripps Mission

The Cripps Mission came to India in 1942 headed by Sir Stafford Cripps, a socialist member of the war cabinet, to negotiate with Indian leaders on behalf of the British government. When the entire world was at midst of Second World War, the British government in India declared the participation of India in the war in favour of Allied Powers. This was done without consulting the Indian political leaders or the elected representatives of the parties. This provoked the crowd who reacted to this injustice where it was the Indians who were to lay their lives for a war out of which they themselves would hardly win anything. As a result the mission on its arrival was received with a huge countrywide protest resulting into a complete failure.

Government of India Act of 1935

The round table conferences of the early 1930's as well as a White Paper published in 1933 formed the basis for what would become the Government of India Act of 1935. The important clauses of the act were:

Simon Commission

The Indian Statutory Commission was a group of seven British Members of Parliament that had been dispatched to India in 1927 to study constitutional reform. The Commission was named Simon Commission, following the name of the chairperson of the Commission Sir John Simon.

Government of India act of 1919

This was the next major revision of the administration policy of the British in India. The earlier Morley-Minto reforms had failed to satisfy the aspirations of the nationalists and hence a report was tabled called the Montague-Chelmsford report which eventually became the Government of India act of 1919. The British aimed to subdue nationalist feelings by involving Indians more in the administration.

Government of India Act, 1915

This act was passed to consolidate the provisions of the proceeding Government of India Acts.

Indian Council Act 1909 or Morley – Minto Reforms

  • Morley was the Secretary of State, while Minto was the Indian Viceroy.
  • Legislative Councils, both at the Centre and in the Provinces, were expanded.
  • With regard to Central Government, an Indian member was taken in the Executive Council of the Governor General.

Indian Councils Act 1892

Two improvements in both the Central and the Provincial Legislative Councils were suggested to the following :
  • Though the majority of the official members was retained, the Non – Official members were to be nominated by the Bengal Chamber of Commerce and Provincial Legislative Councils ( The Non – Official members of the Provincial Councils were to be nominated by certain local bodies such as Universities, District Boards, Municipalities]. Indian leaders like G.K.Gokhale, Ashutosh Mukherjee, Ras Bihari Ghosh and S.N.Banerjee found their way in the Legislative Council.

Indian Councils Act of 1861

  • For the first time the Act introduces the representative institutions in India. It enabled the Governor- General to associate representatives of the Indian people with the work of legislation by nominating them to his expanded council.

Government of India Act, 1858

The first war of Indian Independence in 1857 brought the career of East India Company to an end. In 1858, the Government of India was placed directly under the crown through the Secretary of State for India and all the matters were to be seen by him. This Act had three parts:

The Charter Act of 1853

  • Laid foundation of Parliamentary system of Government, the executive and legislative separated. Legislative Assembly functioned in the model of British Parliament.
  • Renewed the term of East India Company for an indefinite period;

Charter Act of 1833

  • Company's monopoly to tea trade and China trade was abolished and it was required to wind up its commercial business. But administration and political powers were continued and status quo was maintained.

Charter Act 1813

The Charter Act of 1813 was as follows:

•    The monopoly of trade of the Company was abolished except in Tea and its trade with China.

Charter Act 1793

The East India Company Act 1793 is also known as the Charter Act of 1793. It was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain which renewed the charter issued to the British East India Company, and continued the Company's rule in India.

In contrast with legislation concerning British India proposed in the preceding two decades, the 1793 Act "passed with minimal trouble". The Act made only fairly minimal changes to either the system of government in India or British oversight of the Company's activities. Most importantly, the Company's trade monopoly was continued for a further 20 years.

Pitts India Act 1784

It was introduced by the British Parliament to bring the administration of East India Company under the direct control. The salient features of Pitt`s India Act are:
  • A Board of Control was established that contained maximum six parliamentarians. The Board was headed by the senior Cabinet member who was the Director and Superintendent to control the affairs of the company related to territorial possessions in the East Indies.

Regulating Act of 1773

The Regulating Act, 1773 said that:

  • The Government of the presidency of Fort William in Bengal should have a Governor General and a Council, which consists of four Councilors with the general democratic rule that the Governor General would consider decision of the majority of the Councilors.

Indian Polity and Constitution

Definition of Constitution- A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. When these principles are written down into a single collection or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to comprise a written constitution.

Saturday, December 23, 2017

JEE and NEET will be held twice in a year

NTA inister engineering and medical admission test, reports Indian Express from sources like MHRD and PTI

The National Testing Agency NTA is a government by formulated by MHRD i.e. Ministry of Human Resources Development of Government of India to administer the entrance examinations. For now both JEE Main and NEET are held by Central Board of Secondary education. However CBSE expressed displeasure in conducting entrance examination as it gets over burdened.

Friday, December 22, 2017

Mock Test JEE Advanced 2018 available now

Many JEE candidates may have a question, how JEE Advanced 2018 Computer Based Test or CBT look like. How questions will appear, how to answer, and may be many more questions. So test takers get comfortable with the idea of, how JEE Advanced 2018 CBT will look like on a computer screen, the IIT Kanpur facilitates with mock test.

Practice JEE Advanced 2018 CBT Mock Test

Help Video for JEE Advanced 2018 CBT Mock Test

Sir Srinivas Ramanujan - The Immortal Genius

The man who made India proud without a formal educational qualification and stunned the world's top scientists, engineers and thinkers during British era is called Ramanujan.
He was born in Erode, Madras Presidency (Now its in Tamil Nadu state) on December 22, 1887. This was misfortune for Mathematics, India and the world that Ramanujan didn't live longer but died at very young age of 32 on 26 April 1920.

Cengage to offer online unlimited digital study material for less than $120 per year

The students planning to study in United State in 2018 have a reason to rejoice here. Now education will be available for less cost. No, I am not talking about tuition fees, but its spending on books. According to Financial Times report Cengage Learning is going to launch subscription based model of Digital Library next year. The students can buy full digital subscription of books for $119.99 only.

BSNL Recruitment 2018 for 107 Posts of Junior Engineers

Want to be a Junior Engineer with BSNL i.e. Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, one of the largest telecom service provider and agency of government in India?
Apply now online. The last date for submission of application form is January 15, 2018

Make in India will give employment to Crore people by 2020

According to Director General-DMEO an advisor NITI Aayog, Arun Srivastav the Make In India program of government of India will generate 20 crore new jobs in various sectors. The India.com reported in its website that he was speaking in a function in National Capital, New Delhi. It is to be noted that the Government of India is looking for startup opportunities through programs like Start Up India and Make In India. Srivastav said, we are in the midst of fourth technology revolution.

Thursday, December 21, 2017

NEET PG 2018

NEET PG 2018 Demo Test LIVE Now

NEET PG 2018 is Computer Based Test (CBT). The administering authority NBE has designed a demo test so the the test takers may get comfortable with the idea how the actual CBT shall look like on a computer screen. Here is link to NEET PG 2018 Demo Test

WBJEE 2018

The West Bengal Board Joint Entrance Examination – WBJEE 2018 is administered by West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination Board. On the basis of score in WBJEE candidates are offered seats in Under Graduate (UG) Degree Courses in Engineering & Technology, Pharmacy and Architecture in Universities, Govt. Colleges and Self Financed Institutes in the State of West Bengal. Here is WBJEE 2018 schedule

WBJEE 2018 Negative Marking

Answering a question wrong means either you know a thing wrongly or you are counting on guess work. There is no scope for guess work in scientific disciplines or related.
For wrong answer you will be punished with negative marking.
In section 1 for each wrong answer you will be awarded - 0.25% marks
In section 2 for each wrong answer you will be awarded - 0.25% marks
In section 3 for partially correct answers calculation formula for awards of marks will be 2 x (no of correct options marked DIVIDED BY no of correct options)

 

WBJEE 2018 Question Paper Pattern

WBJEE 2018 administered by WBJEEB i.e. West Benga Joint Entrance Examination Board is Admission Test for Engineering, Technology, Pharmacy and Architecture degree courses. Question are are asked in Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics.
The minimum qualification to appear for WBJEE 2018 is 10+2 or equivalent. Questions are asked from class 11th and 12th standard.

WBJEE 2018 Papers and Subject Details

The WBJEE 2018 is a two paper examination. Both papers are offered offline. The subject combination for both the papers is given below

List Education Boards for Admission through WBJEE 2018

The WBJEE 2018 is admission test for Engineering / Architecture / Pharmacy degree courses in the colleges of West Bengal. The WBJEEB is administering authority for the administration  of entrnce examination across the state. Here is list of Education Boards / Admission Councils whose certificates are valid to write WBJEE 2018

Facebook show job ads to young people only

If you are a mid level executive and someone looking for a job change or someone looking for a job inside inside facebook, perhaps you are doing it wrong. Facebook shows paid job postings to only young people. Mashable.com famous social networking and tech news website reported, according to ProPublica and New York Times reports that large corporations like Amazon, Target, Goldman Sachs and Facebook target paid job ads so as only to show to younger people only. However, many people feel that there should be no age based biasing while hiring. There are also petitions filled court on matters related Age based discrimination in hiring For complete story go here

I am using facebook for many years for the purpose of link sharing but never spotted a single job ad from advertisers inside facebook.

JELET 2018

The JELET 2018 is administered by West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination Board WBJEEB for admission to 2nd Year (3rd Semester) in a Four Year Degree Courses in Engineering, Technology, Pharmacy under Lateral Entry Scheme. Here is JELET 2018 schedule

JEEDEC 2018

The JEEDEC 2018 is administered by West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination Board WBJEEB for admission to 5 Year Evening Bachelor Degree Course of Civil, Electrical and Mechanical Engineering of Jadavpur University (JU). Here is JEEDEC 2018 schedule

JEHOM 2018

The JEHOM 2018 is administered by West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination Board WBJEEB for admission to 5 Year Degree Course Hotel Management and Catering Technology. Here is JEHOM 2018 schedule

JECA 2018

The JECA 2018 is administered by West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination Board WBJEEB for admission to Master of Computer Application MCA. Here is JECA 2018 schedule

JENPAUH 2018

The JENPAUH 2018 is administered by West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination Board WBJEEB for admission to Bachelor Degree Courses in Nursing and others. Here is JENPAUH 2018 schedule

Wednesday, December 20, 2017

EVETS 2018

The EVETS 2018 is administered by West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination Board WBJEEB for admission to Bachelor Degree Courses of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry. Here is EVETS 2018 schedule

PUMDET 2018

The PUMDET 2018 is administered by West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination Board WBJEEB for admission to Post Graduate courses in Presidency University. Here is PUMDET 2018 schedule

PUBDET 2018

The PUBDET 2018 is administered by West Bengal Joint Entrance Examination Board WBJEEB for admission to Under Graduate courses in Presidency University. Here is PUBDET 2018 schedule

Tuesday, December 19, 2017

PGDM institutions can deduct Rs 1000 only in case of withdrawal

Securing admission in a business school is tough and getting preferred choices is pretty tougher. Often admission deadline to different institutes clashes with each other. Students looking for admission into PGDM courses often get confused about where to study and what courses. There arise lots of confusion during admission dates. If you want to secure a seat you need to report to institution within prescribed time limit. The student also have choice to leave a course before classes begins.
But problem arises when an student truly go for admission withdrawal. There are allegations since years that PGDM institutes deny return of fees.

'Youthquake' - Oxford word of 2017

The Oxford Dictionary publishes and adopts most used words every years. The word for year 2017 is Youthquake
The term is defined as a significant cultural, political or social change arising from the actions or influence of young people.

APTET 2018 Registration open now

Wanna be a teacher in Andhra Pradesh?

The APTET 2017 – Andhra Pradesh Teacher’s Eligibility Test is open now.

Waste onion skin could be new source of furure energy

Breakthrough finding by researchers of IIT Kharagpur, India and Pohang University of Science and Technology South Korea

World is finding with many crisis, energy is one of them resources are depleting. But this is where society needs thinkers and researchers. Definitely credit to those who dip their shoes truly deeper in the mud to find the jewel. And researchers of IIT Kharagpur, India and Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), South Korea are no different.

Springboard landed $9.5 millon series A round to offer online alternative to a master's degree

Degree comes in many packages. Often the problem lies in the course curriculum. Education institutes does not revise the courses with same pace as changes in industry happens. This results in unemployed graduates with a degree in hand. Tech world is changing very fast, we need to learn new things daily. If we are not learning, the degree and certificates won't help. This is where we need education providers in new tech skills.

Monday, December 18, 2017

Top 10 MBA schools in the world: FT Ranking 2017

The Financial Times (FT) prepares World Ranking of MBA schools every year on the basis of following parameters
Aims achieved, Careers, Career Service Rank, Employment, Recommends, Salary, Value, International Course, Female participation etc. Here is list of Top 10 MBA Schools in the world according to Financial Times Ranking 2017

IESE Business School, Spain

The IESE Business School established is the graduate business school of the University of Navara. For over 50 years institute is striving to produce eligible managers and industry leaders for the cause of building businesses. The course offered by IESE has affiliation from AACSB, EQUIS and AMBA. The school has campuses in Barcelona, Madrid, München, New York, NY and São Paulo. The Harvard-IESE Joint Advisory Committee was established in 1963. The committee meets annually to discuss issues of mutual interests.

University of Chicago Booth School of Business

The University of Chicago Booth School of Business established in 1898 is graded world’s no. 10 MBA program provided in Financial Times Ranking 2017. In 2016, the school stands at 8 place while in 2015 it was as 9th place.

Profiler: London Business School

The London Business School (LBS) established in 1964 is world’s leading business school. The degree awarded from LBS are recognised from University of London, AACSB, EQUIS, AMBA. Currently, more than 2000 students are enrolled in different business courses of LBS. The school also has a distant campus in Dubai.

Profiler: University of Cambridge: Judge

A business degree from Cambridge Judge Business School - CJBS is a wise investment. Its stylish, it nurtures a great business leader in you and it give a way of living in style. You can earn MBA qualification here in 12 months. Though double the work but you save 1 year in practice. Time is biggest commodity you have in hand and at CJBS you get it.

List of US universities accepting 3 years Indian bachelor’s degree

The Universities in United States requires 4 years bachelor’s degree for admission. However majority of college courses in India are taught over a span of 3 years. The students with a 3 years bachelors degree willing to apply to US universities require to spend two more years in India towards masters degree. Thus it takes in total of 5 years.

Profiler: Harvard Business School Boston Massachusetts

Why Harvard MBAs are most employable business graduates in the world

Anything that cannot be expressed in terms of numbers in unscientific, illogical and baseless. But MBA from HBS Boston Massachusetts has nice numbers associated with it as a proof of success.

The Harvard Business School  established in 1908 is one the top business schools in the world. Whether Ranking on different parameters may slide according to different surveys  but business degrees offered at Harvard are in No. 1 demand. Bill Gates Harvard dropout, Marck Zucerberg Harrvard Dropout, P. Chindabaram Harvard pass out; at the moment I remember only these three 3 name who happen to be proud Harvardian. May be next could be you.

Sunday, December 17, 2017

2nd Round Application Deadline to study at Wharton is January

Want to Study at Business School, MBA degree or some other, second round application deadline for business courses is nearing. Apply on or before January 3, 2018.
For second round applicants Interview Invitations are scheduled on February 8, 2018. Decisions shall be available on March 28, 2018.

Profiler: University of Pennsylvania: Wharton

Why study MBA from Wharton Business School

Get stylish with a degree from the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania. Yes, Wharton sounds that way to me. And you can earn a business degree from Wharton. In Financial Times MBA School Ranking 2017, Wharton stands at No. 3. First two are INSEAD and GSB Stanford. Definitely applying to Wharton needs loads of efforts and a excellence in GMAT.

Profiler: Stanford Graduate School of Business, United States

Why MBA from Stanford GSB worth doing

The Stanford Graduate School of Business established in 1925 Ranks No 2 in Financial Times Global MBA Ranking 2017. The school has other synonyms like Stanford Business School, Stanford GSB, or GSB. Its one of the seventh school of Stanford University, US.

Profiler: INSEAD, Singapore/France

Why MBA from INSEAD Singapore/France

  • INSEAD Singapore / France stands No. 1 in the Financial Times Global MBA Ranking 2017.
  • INSEAD has partnerships with world’s some top business schools, meaning you will get to learn MBA lessons from top notch business gurus and scholars.
  • The INSEAD’s members comes from over 40 countries.
  • INSEAD also has campus in Abu Dhabi.
  • More than 1300 students are enrolld in Grduate and PhD programs.
  • INSEAD delivers Executive Education Program to more than 11000 participants every year.

Saturday, December 16, 2017

Study Full Time MBA in ESMT Berlin, Germany, Admission Open

Looking to earn MBA degree from overseas? Is Germany your preferred destination? Are you looking to earn MBA from a world class school?

ESMT Berlin, Germany invites applications from eligible candidates to pursue Full Time MBA program

Friday, December 15, 2017

Washington University

The Washington University was Founded in 1853 conducts education and research programs at Undergraduate and Postgraduate level through following schools
  1.     Arts & Sciences
  2.     Brown School
  3.     Olin Business School
  4.     Sam Fox School of Design & Visual Arts
  5.     School of Engineering & Applied Science
  6.     School of Law
  7.     School of Medicine

SNAP 2017 Exam Pattern

SNAP 2017 Symbiosis National Aptitude Test is entry requirement for admission into MBA / MSc (CA) / MSc (SS) programmes offered by institutes of Symbiosis International University.

SNAP 2017 is scheduled on December 17

SNAP 2017 Symbiosis National Aptitude Test is set to be administered on December, 2017. This is online test and will be administered over 102 centres across India. Candidates who qualify in SNAP 2017 shall get admission into MBA / MSc (CA) / MSc (SS) programmes offered by institutes of Symbiosis International University. Candidates selected through SNAP 2017 shall need to appear for GE-PIWAT for 2018 admission.

Washington University to Mentor IIT Delhi

The Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD) enter in an agreement with Washington University. Under the agreement selected students of IIT Delhi shall get guidance from the faculty members of Washington University. The program leverage the students to take challenges and solve problems affecting global community in a universal settings. The Washington University with IIT Delhi organized Forum for India. The focus of the forum was, how energy choices affect agriculture, environmental and health in relation to climate change.

Thursday, December 14, 2017

Datto founder donates $50 million to Rochester Institute of Technology

The Cnn.com reported and I feel my readers majority of who comes mainly from academic background shall get inspiration from it.

There was an student in Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT) named Austin McChord. He was into Bioinformatics Major. Unable to complete he left the college and founded Datto, a data protection startup. In 2009 he completed his degree from RIT.

UPSEE 2018

The U.P. STATE ENTRANCE EXAMINATION (UPSEE 2018) is administered for admission to First Year of B. Tech/B.Arch./B.Pharm./BHMCT/BFAD/BFA/ MBA/MCA And 2nd
Year of B. Tech./B.Pharm./MCA (Lateral Entry).

UGC NET November 2017

Did you appeared for UGC NET November 2017? Well. the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) is uploading the scanned images of OMR answered sheet, recorded responses and answer key of candidates starting 12.12.2017 through 18.12.2017. Candidates can check and verify if recorded responses are same as put in OMR sheet. In case of errors, test takes can challenge it till 18.12.2017 till 11.59 pm. The applicable is Rs 1000 per question and can be paid through Credit Card / Debit Card. If the challenges made by candidates are found to be true, corrections shall be done and fees will be refunded. But in case of a false challenge fees submitted shall not be refunded. Check UGC NET November 2017 Answer Sheet and Recorded Responses

Download ESE Prelims 2018 E-Admit Card

Engineering Services Examination (ESE) 2018 Preliminary is scheduled on January 7, 2018. The Union Public Services (UPSC) New Delhi administers this examination for the selection of candidates to apply for UPSC ESE Main Examination 2018. The candidates who has applied for this test can download ESE Prelims 2018 admit card from Official Website and take the print of the same. In case if photograph of a candidate is not visible or improper, he / she must carry two identical photograph to the examination centre and printout of eadmit card together with a proof of identity like Aadhar Card, Passport, Driving License, etc.
In case of any other errors in admit card candidates are advised to communicate through email to usengg-upsc@nic.in on or before 29th December 2017.

Download E-Admit Card Engineering Services Preliminary Examination 2018

Wednesday, December 13, 2017

Free Competitive Examination coaching to Delhi students

Jai Bhim Mukhyamantri Pratibha Vikas Yojana


The Government of Union Capital Territory of has announced free coaching assistant to SC / ST candidates of Delhi preparing for competitive examinations like Banking Services, Railways, SSC, and Administrative Services and other competitions. Under the scheme the Delhi Government will provide tuition classes through coaching centres in Delhi. Under the scheme, first 100 students will be selected. Later this scheme shall extend to 500 students. Selected students shall also get monthly stipend of Rs 2500 per month.

Samsung Electronics Jobs 2018 in India

Are you looking to get hired in 2018? If you are an engineering graduate or going to complete your degree or higher degree in 2018 chances are Samsung Electronics may hire you. According to PTI, Business Today and many other news networks, Samsung Electronics is looking to hire 1000 graduates from India this year. Last year this number was 800. While Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are main hiring ground for engineering companies; other engineering colleges are also equally popular like BITS Pilani and NITs etc. If Samsung Recruiters  is not coming to your college this season you can apply directly. Here is link to Open Positions in Samsung Electronics

Tuesday, December 12, 2017

Engineering Services Exam Question Papers, Answers and Solutions

Engineering Services Exam is administered by Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) New Delhi in Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Electronics & Telecommunication Engineering for recruitment of Engineers in different government offices. The minimum qualification to appear for this test is a Graduate Degree in Engineering. Here provided  Question Papers, Answers and Solutions to help in preparation for upcoming Engineering Services Examination.

Engineering Services Examination 2015 Question Papers
Engineering Services Examination 2014 Question Papers
Engineering Services Examination 2013 Question Papers
Engineering Services Examination 2012 Question Papers

Engineering Services Exam 2011 Question Paper

IES 2011 Question Paper GAT

Engineering Services Exam Question Paper 2010

Engineering Services Exam 2010 Conventional CIVIL_PAPER_I_CONV

Engineering Services Exam Question Papers 2009

Engineering Services Exam 2009 Conventional _CIVIL_I

Engineering Services (Main) Examination, 2018

Engineering Services (Main) Examination, 2018 administered by Union Public Service Commission UPSC New Delhi for recruitment of graduate engineers with various government departments. Only those candidates shall be eligible to write the test who qualify in the Engineering Services (Prelims) Examination, 2018. Application procedure is completely online. The test is scheduled on 1.7.2018.

QnAs: Engineering Services Examination 2018

Who don't want to be an Engineer? This is most sought after profession in the world. Engineers are nation builders. Engineering of Things teaches these sharp minds to do engineering of society as well. No matter, how many engineering colleges are there, how many employed / unemployed engineering graduates are there, an Engineer always draws attention where he go.

Rejected applications CDS I 2018 due to non payment

The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) New Delhi released list of rejected application for Combined Defence Services (CDS) Examination I 2018. All the applicants who has paid the application fee through Cash but confirmation not received by the UPSC from bank can submit the receipt of fees paid to commission's office. Candidates who has paid fees through Credit Card / Debit Card or Net Bank but application is rejected need to submit card statement or bank statement. Candidates can make appeal against rejection with proof of fees paid to