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Civil Services of India

The Imperial Civil Services from the period of British Rule in India renamed as Indian Civil Services (ICS) under the Constitution of India in 1949. The Upper House of Indian Parliament “Rajya Sabha” is authorized agency of Constitution of India to set up new branches of Civil Services. The Rajya Sabha can do so by voting in the house iff at least two-third of its acting members agrees on setting up a New Civil Service Branch.


The Indian Civil Servants protected by Article 311 of the Constitution of India and serves at the pleasure of President of India. The Indian Civil Services System forms the backbone of government machinery.

The Civil Services of India classified into three categories:

  • All India Civil Services
  • Central Civil Services: This has two groups: Central Civil Services Group A and Central Civil Services Group B; and
  • State Civil Services (SCS) also called Provincial Civil Services (PCS)

The Article 311 of the Constitution of India reads as follows regarding Civil Servants:

311. Dismissal, removal or reduction in rank of persons employed in civil capacities under the Union or a State

(1) No person who is a member of a civil service of the Union or an all India service or a civil service of a State or holds a civil post under the Union or a State shall be dismissed or removed by a authority subordinate to that by which he was appointed

(2) No such person as aforesaid shall be dismissed or removed or reduced in rank except after an inquiry in which he has been informed of the charges against him and given a reasonable opportunity of being heard in respect of those charges Provided that where it is proposed after such inquiry, to impose upon him any such penalty, such penalty may be imposed on the basis of the evidence adduced during such inquiry and it shall not be necessary to give such person any opportunity of making representation on the penalty proposed: Provided further that this clause shall not apply

(a) where a person is dismissed or removed or reduced in rank on the ground of conduct which has led to his conviction on a criminal charge; or
(b) where the authority empowered to dismiss or remove a person or to reduce him in rank ins satisfied that for some reason, to be recorded by that authority in writing, it is not reasonably practicable to hold such inquiry; or
(c) where the President or the Governor, as the case may be, is satisfied that in the interest of the security of the State, it is not expedient to hold such inquiry

(3) If, in respect of any such person as aforesaid, a question arises whether it is reasonably practicable to hold such inquiry as is referred to in clause ( 2 ), the decision thereon of the authority empowered to dismiss or remove such person or to reduce him in rank shall be final

The Civil Servants are appointed under various agencies of Central Government and State Government(s) in various posts and services. Some of the likely posts and services of civil services are:

  • Administrators in the central government
  • Administrators in the central government state government
  • Emissaries in the foreign missions/embassies; 
  • Tax collectors 
  • Revenue commissioners
  • Civil service commissioned police officers; 
  • Permanent representative(s) and employees in the United Nations and its agencies
  • Chairman, Managing Director, full-time functional Director/Member of the Board of Management of various Public Sector Undertakings/ Enterprises, Corporations, Banks and financial institutions.
  • Advisors or special duty officers or private secretaries to ministers of the Union and the State Government.

Above mentioned tentative name of groups and posts; actual position may vary largely as per Government orders under constitution.

The Appointments Committee of the Cabinet is responsible for appointments of Civil Servants in the Rank of Joint Secretary to the Government of India and above, other major appointments, empanelment and extension of tenure. The Civil Services Board is responsible for appointments of Civil Servants in the government of States in the rank below Joint Secretary.

The appointment of Civil Servants in All India Civil Services and Central Government Civil Services done through All India Competitive Examination i.e. Civil Services Examination (CSE). The Union Public Service Commission (UPSC), an agency of Government of India is responsible authority for conduct of Civil Services Examination (CSE), publication of Civil Services Result, Preparation of Merit Rank of Candidates for Final Selection. The agency also conducts many other examinations for appointment to different posts and services e.g. Engineering Services Examination, Medial Services Examination and Indian Forest Services Examination etc.

The appointment of Civil Servants at state level is done through Provincial Civil Services (PCS) Examination. The Public Service Commissions (PSCs) of States are responsible authorities for conduct of PCS examination in individual states.

Being civil servants comes with loads of responsibilities. While civil servants enjoy diplomatic immunity, they are bounded by Oath of Office to work for people of nation and under no circumstances should be guilty of favoring to self through any means. To remind them duties and responsibilities of being a civil servant, the Civil Services Day is celebrated every year on 21 April.

The Indian Civil Services requires young, honest and dedicated officers to the cause of nation building. The application process is simple. You need to be a graduate in any subject to apply for being civil servant. Selection process is rigorous; aspirants are tested in phased manner, not only for knowledge, but also for understanding, awareness, critical thinking and decision taking abilities.

The Indian Civil Servants enjoys better pay package, healthcare for personal and dependents, security, schooling to kids, various allowances for self and family, discounted travel, good pension package after retirement including many other facilities and well respected place in and outside government. While selection process is rigorous, every moment is a testing time in the life of civil servants to serve with honesty to government for the welfare of people. Honest Officers Does That With Pride!

The civil services examination is rigorous testing of academics, personal traits and level of passion to make people’s lives better. Because of unique testing methodologies, that Civil Services Exam presents in general and UPSC Civil Services Exam in particular, test taker runs pillar to post for finding Civil Services Exam experts.

Related Articles:

UPSC Civil Services Examination

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