Let's know About Malaysia
The history of Malaysia is defined by its deliberate position at one of the worlds’ major crossroads tropical climate, the surrounding environment and the regime of the northeast and southwest monsoon. Malaysia was one of living place for primitive man, evidence to this fact is stone implement found at Lengong in Perak and the remarkable findings in the Niah Cave of Sarawak.
The present day inhabitants of Malaysia are the orang asli of the Peninsula and people such as the Penan of Sarawak and the Rungus of Sabah. These people came to the region 5000 years back. These people were the pioneers of the movement of peoples southwards from China and Tibet through mainland Southeast Asia and the Malay Peninsula to the Indonesian Archipelago and beyond. The Malays’ people represented the second and third wave of the occupation.
Pro Malay came the region around 1000 BC. Later the Deutero- Malays approached the island over the next few centuries. These people were equipped with new farming techniques and new knowledge of metals. The Malay people spread all over the island of the archipelago gave rise to the complex and variegated ethnic pattern of present day Malaysia and Indonesia. The Malaya people of the region were closely bonded with Malay people of Sumatra and for centuries there was no dividing line between the nations. The Malaysians residents are called “Sons of the Soil”.
New historical development took place in Malaysia around 1st Century BC. During this period business and trade ties were established beyond Southeast Asia specifically Peoples’ Republic of China and India. With trade ties Hindu and Buddhist philosophies came to the region from India. Hindu and Buddhist thought causes deep impact in the native language, literature and social customs of Malaysia.
During Hindu – Buddhist period growth in trade and businesses was enormous in the east and west, in this period political unit came into existence in the Peninsula and in the Kalimantan. For the large part of this time the residents of the area were subjected to the way of either Javanese or Sumatran power. The most concrete proof of the existence of Hindu Buddhist period in Malaysian history are found in the temple sites of Lembah Bujang and Kuala Merbok in Kedah. The Hindu Buddhist period of Malaysian history came to an end with the approach of Islam in the region. These were Arab business people who introduced Islam here.
After 1400, Islam became a major influence with the conversion of the Malay-Hindu rulers of Melaka. Further Islam went to other parts of the Malay Peninsula and to the Malay States in Sumatra and Indonesian Archipelago. Islam left great influence in the life of Malay people. After the collapse of Melaka, the sultanate of Brunei in Kalimantan rose to become the principal agent for the propagation of Islam in that area.
The Malay kingdom, which dominated both sides of the Straits of Melaka for about hundred years, marked the classical age of Malay culture. Today several states of the Malay Peninsula trace their roots back into the genesis of Melaka sultanate. In Kalimantan the population of modern Sabah and Sarawak lived an autonomous existence although the ancient kingdom of Brunei exercised a general sway over them until the end of the nineteenth century.
With the arrival of Europeans into the region both Brunei and Melaka Empires were horrified. In 1511, Melaka gone in the hands of Portuguese. The power of Brunei was crippled in its infancy by the establishment of the Spaniards in the Philippines and by the rise of Dutch power in Java.
Britons intruded in the region at the end of 18th century an introduced resources and organization of the industrial revolution. Britons settled their bases at Pulau Pinang (1786), Singapore (1819) and Melaka (1824), these colonies were known as the Straits Settlements. In 1824, Malay was parted into British and Dutch as a result of Anglo Dutch Treaty. In 1874, British took the first step for bringing the Peninsula states under their direct supervision and imposed the Pangkor Treaty on the rulers of Perak and made similar arrangements in Selangor. By 1914 the political organisation of the present-day states of Malaysia was as follows:
The Straits Settlements : British crown colony headed by a British governor, consisting of Singapore, Melaka, Pulau Pinang, Labuan, the Cocos Isles and Christmas Isle. Capital: Singapore.
The Federated Malay States : British protectorate headed by a British High Commissioner (Governor of the Straits Settlements); consisting of the States of Negeri Sembflan, Pahang, Perak and Selangor.
The Unfederated Malay States : British protectorate under the tutelage of a British Adviser in each State responsible to the British Commissioner, consisting of Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Perlis and Terengganu.
Sarawak : British protectorate ruled by the Brooke family. Capital: Kuching.
Sabah : British protectorate, ruled by the Chartered Company of the British
North Borneo. Capital: Jesselton (Kota Kinabalu).
Japanese took hold of Malaya and British Borneo in late 1941. Japanese power collapsed in 1945 as result of World War II. The British were eligible enough for taking control of the region after the fall of Japan in 1945 but the political situation was different. As a result the Strait Settlements were dissolved. Singapore became a separate crown colony and so did both Sarawak and British North Borneo in place of the former Brooke and Chartered Company regimes. In 1948, the Federation of Malaya was formed.
The first federal elections were held in 1955. The first step for the making of Malaysia has taken in 1961 when the idea for the formation of a wider federation comprising the Federation of Malaya, Singapore and the Kalimantan States (including Brunei) was mooted. Elections were held for the first time in Brunei and in Sabah in 1962. A United Nations mission was sent to Borneo in 1963, which reported the public opinion in favor of joining Malaysia.
On 16 September 1963, Malaysia was formally promulgated. The South China Sea separates the Peninsula Malaysia from the states of Sabah and Sarawak. Thailand lies in the north of Malaysia and Singapore in the South. Sabah and Sarawak are north of Indonesia in Borneo while Sarawak also shares a border with Brunei.
Malaysia located in the southeast Asia consists of two noncontiguous areas: Peninsular Malaysia on the Asian mainland and the states of Sarawak and Sabah, known together as East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. The total boundary length of Malaysia is 4,563 mi, of which 2,905 mi is coastline.The Peninsular Malaysia have a mountainous spine called main range or Banjaran Titiwangsa which runs from the Thai border southwards to Negri Semblian. A significant fraction of the interior of Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang is also mountainous and contains the highest peak in the Peninsula, Gunung Tahan 2187 m high. Malaysia has number of rivers, in fact all Malaysian states has got their name from a river. These rivers have historical importance and form the link for trade and travel. The Sungai Pahang 475 Km in length is the longest of these rivers. The rivers of Sarawak and Sabah are longer than those of the Peninsula. The longest is the Rajang of Sarawak 563 km, which is navigable for small coastal steamers as far as Kapit, 160 km upstream.
About four fifth of Malaysian geography is covered with tropical rainforest. Rice is main crop farmed throughout the peninsula. Main centers for growing rice crops are the states of Perlis, Kedah and mainland Pulau Pinang. Newer areas for large-scale rice cultivation are also to be found in Perak, Selangor and Kelantan. The rubber and palm oil estates are situated in west coast of the peninsula. Tin is also found here in abundance.
Malaysia lies in the equatorial zone. The Malaysian climate has impacts from northeast and southwest monsoons. The northeast monsoon blows from approximately mid November till March, and the southwest monsoon between May and September, the periods of change between the two monsoons being marked by heavy rainfall.
The temperature throughout the year stays high with average around 26 degree Celsius. The diurnal temperature range is about 7 degree Celsius. Cameron Highlands has a mean temperature of 18 degree Celsius and an annual rainfall of over 2500 mm compared to Kuala Lumpur's 27 degree C and 24lO mm. Near to coast the humidity records high (about 80%) due to the high temperature and a high rate of evaporation, and the rainfall is heavy, more than 2500 mm.
About 70% of Malaysian landscape is covered with tropical rainforest. In Peninsular Malaysia, camphor, ebony, sandalwood, teak, and many varieties of palm trees abound. Rain forest fauna includes seladang (Malayan bison), deer, wild pigs, tree shrews, honey bears, forest cats, civets, monkeys, crocodiles, lizards, and snakes. The seladang weighs about a ton and is the largest wild ox in the world.
An immense variety of insects, particularly butterflies, and some 508 breeding species of birds are found. On Sabah and Sarawak, lowland forests contain some 400 species of tall dipterocarps (hardwoods) and semihardwoods; fig trees abound, attracting small mammals and birds; and groves are formed by the extensive aerial roots of warangen.
At higher altitudes, herbaceous plants— buttercups, violets, and valerian found in abundance. Butterflies, brilliantly colored birds of paradise, and a great wealth of other insect and bird species inhabit the two states.
The national language of Malaysia is Bahasa Melayu (Malay). The people of Malaysia also speaks English alongwith Malay. Many other languages and dialects are also spoken here.
Malaysia is one of favorite travel destination among tourists for making holidays and business purposes. Kuala Lumpur, Sarwak and Sabah are main tourist hubs in Malaysia. The famous places in Kuala Lumpur are Istana Budaya, Menara Kuala Lumpur, Petaling Street, Petronas Twin Towers, Petronas Philharmonic Hall, Galeri Petronas, Petrosains and KLCC Park.
Visa Requirements To Study In Malaysia
Internationa Student to study in Malaysia require applying for Visa for the intended period of stay. Roughly you will need following documents to obtain a Malaysian Visa:
- Letter of Acceptance from the Malaysian institute/ college / university
- Valid Passport for the intended period of stay in Malaysia
- Proof of academic records showing you are eligible to puruse a course in Malaysia
- Proof of Health Certificate.
- Personal Bond
To understand detailed requirements and apply for Student Visa to Malayasia log on to Official Website
List of Universities In Malaysia
Malaysia @ A Glance
Official Name: Malaysia
National Anthem: Negaraku
Capital: Kuala Lumpur
Largest City: Kuala Lumpur
Official Languages: Malay
Government: Federal constitutional monarchy
- from the United Kingdom (Malaya only)
August 31, 1957
- Federation (with Sabah, Sarawak and Singapore)
Total Area: 127 355 sq mi
Currency: Ringgit (RM) (MYR)
Time Zone: MST (UTC+8)
- Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+8)
Internet TLD: .my
Calling Code: +60