Indian Polity and Constitution

Definition of Constitution- A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is. When these principles are written down into a single collection or set of legal documents, those documents may be said to comprise a written constitution.

Evolution of Indian Constitution

The Constitution of India

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. It lays down the framework defining fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers, and duties of government institutions, and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles, and the duties of citizens.

The constitution of India is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world; it contains 448 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and 97 amendments.

The constitution of India is available in both Hindi and English language.

Hindi is declared national language by the constitution of India.

The Constitution was enacted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect on 26 January 1950.

The date 26 January was chosen to commemorate the Purna Swaraj declaration of independence of 1930. With its adoption, the Union of India officially became the modern and contemporary Republic of India and it replaced the Government of India Act 1935 as the country's fundamental governing document.

The Constitution declares India to be a sovereign, socialist, secular, democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty, and endeavors to promote fraternity among them.
The words "socialist" and "secular" were added to the definition in 1976 by constitutional amendment.

India celebrates the adoption of the constitution on 26 January each year as Republic Day.

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