Growth- As time passes living shows growth as number of cells increases and results in increase in mass.
Reproduction- Living organisms produce other living organisms similar in physical characters and traits.
Metabolism- Chemical reactions take place inside living cells.
Stimuli- Living organisms have the unique ability the conditions of the surroundings.
Biological Classification of Organisms
In biology, the methodology of grouping of organisms is termed as ‘biological classification’ or simply ‘classification’, these classifications makes parts of scientific taxonomy.
Biological organisms are classified into groups like species or genus.
The Carolus Linnaeus was the first to group biological organisms on the basis of physical characters.
Further Charles Darwin devised principle of common descent.
Later in the later 20th Century biological scientists started using phylogenetic taxonom; in this method organisms are classified on the base of evolutionary relatedness.
The Five Kingdom Classification
The R.H. Whittaker on 1969 proposed the idea of grouping biological beings over five kingdoms on the basis of the following
• how complex the cell structure of an organism is;
• the complexity of body or physical features;
• mode of nutrition;
• the lifestyle; and
• the phylogenetic relationship.
On the basis of above observations Whittaker proposed five kingdoms of living world as A. Monera, B. Protita, C. Fungi, D. Plantae and E. Animalia
Kingdom Monera- I this group comes prokaryotic organisms like bacteria, cynobacteria and acheobacteria. All organisms under this kingdom are microscopic in nature, means can be seen with the help of a microscope. Filamentous bacteria also comes under this Kingdom. Prokaryotic means all organisms under this kingdom are unicellur organisms made of a single cell.
Kingdom Protista- The term protista was first used by Ernst Haeckel in 1866. The Protists were distributed over several groups based on similarities to the "higher" kingdoms: the unicellular "animal-like" protozoa, the "plant-like" protophyta (mostly unicellular algae), and the "fungus-like" slime molds and water molds. Protists live in almost any environment that contains liquid water. Many protists, such as the algae, are photosynthetic and are vital primary producers in ecosystems, particularly in the ocean as part of the plankton. Other protists, such as the Kinetoplastids and Apicomplexa, are responsible for a range of serious human diseases, such as malaria and sleeping sickness.
Kingdom Plantae- All green plants comes under this biological kingdom. The group is also called green plants or Viridiplantae in Latin. However, there exist few exceptions like some algae, diatoms, fungi, and members of monera and protista kingdoms. All green plants get energy from air, sunlight, water and soil nutrition to complete life cycle and appear green in color, this material is called chlorophyll. Precise numbers are difficult to determine, but as of 2010, there are thought to be 300–315 thousand species of plants, of which the great majority, some 260–290 thousand, are seed plants.
Kingdom Fungi- This Kingdom encompasses all non green plants. Abundant worldwide, most fungi are inconspicuous because of the small size of their structures, and their cryptic lifestyles in soil, on dead matter, and as symbionts of plants, animals, or other fungi. They may become noticeable when fruiting, either as mushrooms or molds. Fungi perform an essential role in the decomposition of organic matter and have fundamental roles in nutrient cycling and exchange. They have long been used as a direct source of food, such as mushrooms and truffles, as a leavening agent for bread, and in fermentation of various food products, such as wine, beer, and soy sauce.
Kingdom Animalia- Except protozoan all animal comes under this kingdom. These includes major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and independently. All animals are also heterotrophs, meaning they must ingest other organisms or their products for sustenance.
Most known animal phyla appeared in the fossil record as marine species during the Cambrian explosion, about 542 million years ago.
Binomial Classification of AnimalsThis is uniform international standard of nomenclature of biological beings. Under this system every biological organism has given two proper name the first name represents genus which always starts with a capital letter and second part of name represents species. For example Human in this system are Homo sapiens. Following given biological names i.e scientific name of some organisms.
• Adder: Vipera Berus
• Ant: Hymenopetrous formicidae
• Ass: Equs Asinus
• Bat: Chiroptera
• Bear: Ursidae Carnivora
• Bison (Buffalo): Bison Bonasus
• Camel: Camelus Camelidae
• Cat: Felis Catus
• Cheetah: Acinonyx Jubatus
• Chimpanzee: Pan Troglodytes
• Cobra: Elapidae Naja
• Cougar: Fenis Concolour
• Crocodile: Crocodilia Niloticus
• Deer: Artiodactyl Cervidae
• Dog: Cannis Familiaris
• Dolphin: Delphinidae Delphis
• Elephant: Proboscidea Elephantidae
• Fox: Cannis Vulpes
• Frog: Anura Ranidae
• Giraffe: Giraffa Camalopardalis
• Goat: Capra Hircus
• Hippopotamus: Hippopotamus Amphibius
• Horse: Eqqus Caballus
• Hyena: Hyaenidae Carnivora
• Kangaroo: Macropus Macropodidae
• Panther: Panthera Pardus
• Lion: Panthera Leo
• Lizard: Sauria Lacertidae
• Mouse: Rodentia Muridae
• Panda: Alurpoda Melanoleuca
• Cat: Felis Catus
• Pig: Artiodactyla Suidae
• Chameleon: Chamaele Ontidate
• Porcupine: Hystricomorph Hystricidae
• Rabbit: Leporidae Cuniculas
• Rattle Snake: Cortalus Horridus
• Reindeer: Rangifer Tarrandus
• Rhinoceros: Perrissodanctyl Rthinocerotidae
• Scorpion: Archinida Scorpionida
• Sea Horse: Hippocampus Syngnathidae
• Seal: Pinnipedia Phocidae
• Sheep: Bovidae Ovis
• Spider Monkey: Arboreal Ateles
• Squirrel: Rodentia Sciurus
• Tiger: Panthera Tigris
• Tiger Cat: Felis Tigrina
• Whale Shark: Rhincodon Typus
• Horse: Eqqus Caballus
• Zebra: Equidae Burcheli