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Showing posts with label General Competitions. Show all posts
Showing posts with label General Competitions. Show all posts

The Difference between living and non living

The word ‘living’ can not be defined in a single word or phrases. However, we can distinguish between livings from non living on the basis of following characteristics-

Growth- As time passes living shows growth as number of cells increases and results in increase in mass.

Reproduction- Living organisms produce other living organisms similar in physical characters and traits.


Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder of brain, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classified as point source or nonpoint source pollution.

Nitrogen Cycle

The nitrogen cycle is the process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms. This transformation can be carried out by both biological and non-biological processes. Important processes in the nitrogen cycle include fixation, mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification. The majority of Earth's atmosphere (approximately 78%) is nitrogen, making it the largest pool of nitrogen. A 2011 study found that nitrogen from rocks may also be a significant source of nitrogen.


Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount (biomass), number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems.

Some Amazing Plant’s Facts

  • Venus-fy-trap, pitcher plant, bladder wort etc are insect eating plants, they derive thier nitrogen from them.
  • In California's Wheeler Park, there is a Bristlecone pine tree with an estimated age of 5,000 years.
  • An american coast red wood reaches a height of 110 m.

Plant Diseases

Like humans, diseases also affects plant kingdom. Following given some commonly occurring diseases in plant kingdom.

1. Viral Disease- Here given some viral diseases of plants.

Mosaic disease of tobacco- This disease caused by Tobaco Mosaic Virus (TMV). When affected the leaves of a plant get shrinked and small. The chlorophyll of the leaves damaged. To control this disease from spreading, the affected plants should be burnt.

Plant Hormone

The Charles Darwin was the first scientist to dabble in Plant Hormone Research.
Darwin in his book "The Power of Movement in Plants" presented in 1880 first describes the effects of light on movement of canary grass (Phalaris canariensis) coleoptiles. Following 5 types of hormones are found in plants-


Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of sugar. This process occurs in plants and some algae. Plants need only light energy, CO2, and H2O to make sugar. The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts, specifically using chlorophyll, the green pigment involved in photosynthesis.

Plant Tissue

  • Tissues are sets of cells which are build of atoms and elements at the most basic level.
  • Plants are build of mainly three parts- roots, stems and leaves and these parts of plants are made of tissues to work together.
  • Scientists classify plant tissues on the basis of structure and function.

Plant Morphology

Plant morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants. This is usually considered distinct from plant anatomy, which is the study of the internal structure of plants, especially at the microscopic level. Plant morphology is useful in the identification of plants.


•    Bacteria were discovered by Antony von Lecuwenhoek in 1829; he is regarded as Father of Bacteriology.
•    The Bacteriology is the scientific study of Bacteria.
•    The Robert Koch (1812-1892) discovered the bacteria of Tuberculosis disease.
•    The Louis Pasteur (1812-1892) discovered the vaccine of rabies and pasteurization of milk.


  • The systematic study of Virus is called virology.
  • A virus is both a living and non living, thus it’s a connecting link between living and non living.
  • Viruses may infect all types of organisms; animals, plants, bacteria and archae.

Introduction to Botany

  • The systematic study of plants and trees is called Botany.
  • The ophrastus is called Father of Botany.

Sex Determination in Humans

The male sex chromosome in humans if XY; the female sex chromosome is XX. In the times of gamete buildup, in male of the sperms holds X chromosome while other half holds Y chromosome. In female all gametes contains only X chromosome. When a male gamete carrying X chromosome, fertilize and ova, the result zygote developed would be a female. And When a male gamete carrying Y chromosome, fertilize and ova, the result zygote developed would be a male.

Biology of Cell

•    Cell is main basic structural unit of all organisms, microscopic in nature, it contains cytoplasmic material and nuclear material in a semi permeable membrane, this membrane is called cell wall in case of plants.

•    Biological organisms may contain a single cell (unicellur) or multiple cell (multicellur).

•    Each cell in organisms works like a programmable chipset to function; it takes nutrients, converts nutrients into energy and performs specialized tasks necessary for life.

•    Robert Hooke discovered the cell in 1665.

•    First Cell Theory was developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann.

Medical Inventions and Discoveries

Adhesive plaster-covered bandages
Paul Beiersdorf
William Morton
Anthrax (vaccine)
Louis Pasteur
Joseph Lister
Artificial heart (implant, human)
Denton Cooley

Diseases Caused by Viruses in Humans

Here is a list of the diseases that viruses cause in the human body. Only proper hygiene and care can help prevent these diseases. While some of them are easily preventable and curable, some can prove to be fatal if not diagnosed and treated on time. Hence, a viral infection must never be taken lightly.

List of Diseases Caused by Bacteria

The human body is vulnerable towards bacteria. Here given diseases caused by different bacteria and affected organ

Balanced Diet

A healthy diet is one that helps maintain or improve general health. It is important for lowering many chronic health risks, such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and cancer. A healthy diet involves consuming appropriate amounts of all essential nutrients and an adequate amount of water. Nutrients can be obtained from many different foods, so there are numerous diets that may be considered healthy. A healthy diet needs to have a balance of macro nutrients (fats, proteins, and carbohydrates), calories to support energy needs, and micro nutrients to meet the needs for human nutrition without inducing toxicity or excessive weight gain from consuming excessive amounts.

Water and Human Body

The water is the most important nutrient and the most abundant substance in the human body.  Water comprises about three quarters of the human mass and is a major component in every cell.  In addition water is important to human health for many reasons; some of them are listed below.