Search Here Questions and Answers about Education and Jobs!

Energy

The energy is the ability to do work. In India 70% population resides in rural areas; thus supplying energy to villages is vital to maintain pace in development. 21% of villages and nearly 50% rural households are yet not electrified.

The per capita consumption of energy was 4816 KWH in 2010-11, according to Central Statistics Office.



Sources of Energy


There are two main types of sources – Commercial and Non Commercial

Commercial Sources of Energy – These includes fossil fuels, oil, coal and natural gases etc. It accounts for more than 50% energy demand in India.

Non Commercial Sources of Energy – These are the energy sources which are supposed to be free. Example includes- firewood, agricultural wastes, animal dung etc.

Energy Resources 







Resource
Value
Units
Rank
Period
Source
Wind Potential
0
Area(km²) Class 3-7 Wind at 50m
120
1990
NREL
Solar Potential
9,877,095,200
MWh/year
8
2008
NREL
Coal Reserves
66,800.07
Million Short Tons
5
2008
EIA
Natural Gas Reserves
1,075,000,000,000
Cubic Meters (cu-m)
26
2010
CIA World Factbook
Oil Reserves
5,800,000,000
Barrels (bbl)
23
2010
CIA World Factbook

Energy Density of Various Fuel Sources


Material
Energy Density (MJ/kg)
100W light bulb time (1kg)
Wood
10
1.2 days
Ethanol
26.8
3.1 days
Coal
32.5
3.8 days
Crude oil
41.9
4.8 days
Diesel
45.8
5.3 days
Natural Uranium
5.7x105
182 years
Reactor Grade Uranium
3.7x106
1171 years

Non Renewable Sources of Energy


Coal Reserves- Coal has to be mined from under the ground or from the surface. Its one of the most hazardous energy sources to environment. Miners working in coal fields have chances to develop lung disease. Coal is responsible for 36% of carbon dioxide emission in the world.

Natural Gas- Natural gas is mix of methane, ethane, propane and butane. It is found in abundance over all oil reserves. About 40% of natural gas reserves are in Russia and Kazakhstan. There are three types of fuels that comes from natural gas- 1. LPG – Liquid Petroleum Gas; 2. LNG – Liquefied Natural Gas and 3. CNG – Compressed Natural Gas.

Nuclear Power- Nuclear energy is the energy that is produced using a controlled nuclear reaction. Many countries use nuclear energy to generate electricity. However, cost of running nuclear power plant is high due to fissile nature of energy sources that works in nuclear power generating plants. Thus nuclear power does not make an alternative to energy problems.

Renewal Sources of Energy


Renewable energy is derived from natural processes. Renewable energy has various forms. It can be derived directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth.

Renewable energy is also known as green or clean energy, because the process of transformation of renewable energy sources into renewable energy does not produce green house gas emissions (toxins or pollutants) that are harmful to the environment.

There are five often used renewable sources - solar energy, water energy, geothermal, wind, biomass (wood, wood waste, municipal solid waste, biogas, and landfill gas).