Showing posts with label Bank PO Exams. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Bank PO Exams. Show all posts

Indian Polity: General Knowledge for Competitive Examinations

In competitive examinations like scholarships test, admission tests, eligibility tests, and general competitions etc questions are asked in subject matter related Indian Politics. Here are lessons to prepare for different competitive exams like UPSC, SSC, PSC, NDA, Banking, Railways, Insurance etc.

Indian Polity and Constitution

Regulating Act of 1773

Important Parliamentary / Constitutional Terms

Act: This refers to - a Bill passed by both  Houses of Parliament and assented to by the President.

Ad hoc Committee: This refers to - a Committee constituted by the House or by the Chairman or by the presiding officers of both the Houses jointly to consider and report on specific matter and becomes functus officio as soon as the task is completed.

The Official Languages of India

  • Article 343 of the Indian Constitution recognises Hindi in Devanagari script as the official language of the union; the Constitution also allows for the continuation of use of the English language for official purposes.

Appointment of Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners

  • The President appoints Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners.
  • Chief Election Commissioner and Election Commissioners have tenure of six years, or up to the age of 65 years and 62 years respectively, whichever is earlier. They enjoy the same status and receive salary and perks as available to Judges of the Supreme Court of India.

Chief Election Commissioners of India:

The following have held the post of the Chief Election Commissioner of India:

1. Sukumar Sen: 21 March 1950 to 19 December 1958

2. K.V.K. Sundaram: 20 December 1958 to 30 September 1967

Election

Election Commission of India
The Election Commission of India was established on January 25, 1950 (under Article 324 of Constitution of India)

Functions of the Public Service Commission:

  • The Union and State Public Service Commissions shall conduct examinations for appointment to the Union and State services respectively.
  • To assist the States in framing the operating schemes of joint recruitment for any services for which candidate possessing special qualifications are required if two or more states make such a request to the Union Public Service Commission.

Public Service Commission

  • The Constitution of India provides for a Public Service Commission namely Union Public Service Commission or UPSC for the Union and State Public Service Commissions of State PSCs or a Joint Public Service Commission for group of states.

Articles under Part XVIII: Emergency Provisions

  • Article 352: Proclamation of Emergency
  • Article 353: Effect of Proclamation of Emergency
  • Article 354: Application of provisions relating to distribution of revenues while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation

Emergency Provisions in India

Part XVIII of the Constitution of India contains Articles 352-360 which deals with 'Emergency Provisions'. There are three kinds of provisions according to the Constitution.

  • National Emergency
  • State Emergency
  • Financial Emergency

Inter-State Relations

  • Article 131 of the Constitution of India provides for the judicial determination of disputes between states by vesting the Supreme Court with exclusive jurisdiction in the matter, while Article 262 of the Constitution provides for the adjudication of once class of such disputes by an extra judicial tribunal.

National Integration Council

  • Formation - 2 June 1962
  • Type -     Government advisory body
  • Purpose/focus     - Address the problems of communalism, casteism and regionalism
  • Region served - India
  • Membership -    150
  • Chairman – Prime Minister of India

National Development Council

  • The National Development Council (NDC) or the Rashtriya Vikas Parishad is the apex body for decision making and deliberations on development matters in India, presided over by the Prime Minister.

Five Year Plans of India

The economy of India is based in part on planning through its five-year plans, which are developed, executed and monitored by the Planning Commission. Prior to the fourth plan, the allocation of state resources was based on schematic patterns rather than a transparent and objective mechanism, which led to the adoption of the Gadgil formula in 1969. Revised versions of the formula have been used since then to determine the allocation of central assistance for state plans.

Planning Commission

  • The Planning Commission is an institution in the Government of India, which formulates India's Five-Year Plans, among other functions.
  • The composition of the Commission has undergone a lot of change since its inception. With the Prime Minister as the ex-officio Chairman, the committee has a nominated Deputy Chairman, who is given the rank of a full Cabinet Minister.
  • Cabinet Ministers with certain important portfolios act as part-time members of the Commission, while the full-time members are experts of various fields like Economics, Industry, Science and General Administration.

Chairman’s of Finance Commission


Finance Commission
Constituted
Chairman
Operational Duration
First
1951
K.C Niyogy
1952-57
Second
1956
K.Santhanam
1957-62

Finance Commission

The Finance Commission constituted by the President pursuant to clause (1) of article 280 of the Constitution.

It was formed to define the financial relations between the centre and the state. The Finance Commission Act of 1951 states the terms of qualification, appointment and disqualification, the term, eligibility and powers of the Finance Commission. As per the Constitution, the commission is appointed every five years and consists of a chairman and four other members.

Inter-State Council

The Inter-State Council is a recommendatory body of the Government of India set up under Article 263 of Indian constitution, with duties to investigate and discuss the subjects of common interest between the Union and State(s) or among the States, making recommendations particularly for better coordination of policy and action on these subjects and deliberating upon such other matters of general interest to the States which may be referred to it by its Chairman. The Council also deliberates upon such other matters of general interest to the States as may be referred by the Chairman to the Council.

Jurisdiction and Seats of High Courts


Name
Estd. In the Year
Territorial Jurisdiction
Seat
Allahabad
1866
Uttar Pradesh
Allahabad (Bench at Lucknow)

The High Court

  • Presently there are 21 High Courts in India. Consists of Chief Justice & other such judges as appointed by the President.
  • The Constitution, unlike in the case of the Supreme Court, does not fix any maximum number of judges for a High Court. A judge of a High Court can be transferred to another High Court without his consent by the President.
  • The Chief Justice of India is also consulted. The opinion provided by him shall have primacy and is binding on the President.