Japan, the Land Of Rising Sun as it is called so is a country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, lying to the east of Korea, Russia and China, Japan stretches from the Sea of Okhootsk in the north to the East China Sea in the South. Japan is an Island nation, it comprises of three thousand islands. The largest islands that make most part of Japan approximately 97% land area are Honshū, Hokkaidō, Kyūshū and Shikoku. Many of the islands are mountainous and volcanic, for example, Japan’s highest peak, Mount Fuji, is a volcano.
Historians and social scientists argue that there was culture in Japan as early as Upper Paleolithic period. Today Japanese culture is a mix of internal developments and outside influences. Japan has adopted its constitution in 1947, since then Japan has maintained unitary constitutional monarchy with an emperor and an elected parliament, the Diet. Japan is tenth largest country in the world in terms of population. Tokyo is the Capital city of Japan and the largest city. The Greater Tokyo Area that includes the Capital city of Tokyo and other surrounding prefectures is the largest metropolitan area in the world with over 30 million residents.
The economy of Japan is worlds second largest. Its defense budget is fifth largest in the world. Japan is a member of United Nations, G8, G4, and APEC. Earthquakes frequent Japan. There are approximately 188 Volcanoes in Japan of which 40 are still active. Scientists now know that the islands are the projecting summits of a huge chain of undersea mountains. Colliding tectonic plates lifted and warped Earth’s crust, causing volcanic eruptions and intrusions of granite that pushed the mountains above the surface of the sea. The forces that created the islands are still at work.
Humans started living in Japanese islands during Paleolithic period around 30000 BC. Later Mesolithic and Neolithic cultures came into island. The Yayoi period, starting around the third century BC, which introduced new practices in the area like wet-rice farming, iron and bronze-making and a new style of pottery, brought by migrants from China or Korea. In fact Yayoi culture has shown the seed of agriculture in Japan. The Japanese first appear in written history in China’s Book of Han. Buddhism reached to Japan through Korea. The Buddhism in Japan also has influences from China. Buddhism as a religion in Japan got support and started strengthening since the Asuka Period.
The modern day Nara came into existence as a strong Central Japanese State during Eighth century. During Heian period indigenous Japanese culture emerged in different forms like art, poetry and culture. Japan's feudal era was characterized by the emergence of a ruling class of warriors, the samurai. As we know, may be no land portion of this world was untouched by traders of Portugal, they reached Japan too during the sixteenth century and established trade ties between Japan and the west.
Oda Nobunga uses latest European Technologies and conquered different daimyo, he almost unified the nation before assassinated in 1582. Toyotomi Hideyoshi succeeded Nobunaga and united the nation in 1590. Hideyoshi invaded Korea twice, but following several defeats by Korean and Ming China forces and Hideyoshi's death, Japanese troops were withdrawn in 1598.
On March 31, 1854, Commodore Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships" of the United States Navy forced the opening of Japan to the outside world with the Convention of Kanagawa. After victories in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905), Japan gained control of Korea, Taiwan and the southern half of Sakhalin.
Japan has seen a long period of Taisho democracy during early twentieth century. Though the Taisho democracy was overshadowed with expansionism and militarization. Japan was part of victorious partners in the World War I. Japan occupies Manchuria in 1931, this occupation was criticized by allies and Japan resigned from the league of nations in 1931. Japan signed the Anti Comintern Pact in 1931 with Germany and joined the Axis of powers in 1941.
The Second Sino Japan War took place between 1937 -1945 after which an oil ban was put on Japan by the United States. Japan declared War against United States, United Kingdom and the Netherlands with the attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, which further resulted in World War II. Japan’s Hiroshima and Nagasaki was bombed by the United States in 1945. Japan surrendered unconditionally on August 15, 1945.
The constitution of Japan was adopted on May 3, 1947, which emphasizes on liberal democratic practices. Japan became a member country of United Nations in 1956. Japan’s economy grows approximately 10% per annum for four decades before suffering recession in mid 1990s. Though positive growth in the early twenty first century has signaled a gradual recovery. Over the years, Japanese culture has evolved greatly, from the countries Jōmon culture to its contemporary culture influenced from Asia, Europe and North America. Traditional Japanese arts include crafts (ikebana, origami, ukiyo-e, dolls, lacquerware, pottery), performances (bunraku, dance, kabuki, noh, rakugo), traditions (games, tea ceremony, budō, architecture, gardens, swords) and cuisine.
Manga, a fusion of traditional wood block painting and western art is now popularizing outside Japan. Manga-influenced animation for television and film called anime. Japanese-made video game consoles have prospered since the 1980s. Japanese music is eclectic, having borrowed instruments, scales and styles from neighboring cultures. Western music, introduced in the late nineteenth century, now forms an integral part of the culture. Karaoke is the most widely practiced cultural activity. Sumo wrestling is most watched sport in Japan, it is considered as Japan’s National Sport. Baseball, Football, Golf and many other sports are also played in Japan. One of the most famous Japanese baseball players is Ichiro Suzuki, who, having won Japan's Most Valuable Player award in 1994, 1995 and 1996.
Japan is a constitutional monarchy; the emperor of Japan is defined by the constitution as "the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people". The position of emperor of Japan is largely ceremonial. Chiefly, the Prime Minister of Japan and other elected members of the Diet hold power, while sovereignty is vested in the Japanese people.
The parliament of Japan is bicameral consisting of House of Representatives and House of Councilors. The House of Representatives has 480 seats and members are elected for a four-year term. The House of Councilors has 240 seats and members are elected for a six-year term. The prime minister of Japan is head of the government. The prime minister is appointed by the emperor and nominated by the National Diet. The Judiciary in Japan is divided into the Supreme Court of Japan and three levels of lower courts. The main body of Japanese statutory law is a collection called the Six Codes. Politically, Japan is divided into 47 prefectures; the administration of each of these prefectures comes under an elected Governor followed by legislatures and administrative bureaucracy. Specially, the city of Tokyo is divided into 23 special wards; each ward has same power as cities.
Japan is a leader in fields of scientific research and technology, machinery and medical research. Some of Japan's more important technological contributions are found in the fields of electronics, automobiles, machinery, industrial robotics, optics, chemicals, semiconductors and metals. Japan leads the world in robotics, having more than half of the world's industrial robots used for manufacturing. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) conducts space and planetary research, aviation research, and development of rockets and satellites. Japan has significant plans in space exploration, including building a moon base by 2030.
Visa Requirements To Study In Japan
International Students, to study in Japan require satisfying following terms and conditions while appling for a Study Visa
- Proof of offer of admission from a Japanese college / university / academic institution
- Proof of qualification to pursue a course in the said institution.
- Proof of Income for supporting your stay and courework in japan
- Proof of Health Certificate
- No objection certificate
- Valid Passport for the intended period of stay in Japan.
For more details allicants are advised to check across following resources
Gateway to Study in Japan - Living Cost and Price
Gateway to Study in Japan - Academic Fees
List of Universities in Japan
Japan @ A Glance
Official Name: Japan
National Anthem: Kimi ga Yo (Imperial Reign)
Largest City: Tokyo
Official Languages: Japanese
Government: Constitutional Monarchy
- National Foundation Day February 11, 660 BC3
- Meiji Constitution November 29, 1890
- Current constitution May 3, 1947
Treaty of San Francisco : April 28, 1952
Total Area: 377 873 sq km
Population: 127 433 494 (According to 2007 estimates)
Currency: Yen (International ¥, Japanese 円 En) (JPY)
Time Zone: JST (UTC+9)
Internet TLD: .jp
Calling Code: +81