Let's Know The New Zealand in Books
In the southwestern Pacific Ocean the North Island, the South Island, and many smaller islands mainly Stewart Island/Rakiura and the Chatham Islands altogether constitute a country called the New Zealand. In Māori, New Zealand is called Aotearoa, which has translated into English as The Land of the Long White Cloud. The dominion of New Zealand also includes the Cook Islands and Niue, which are self-governing but in free association; Tokelau; and the Ross Dependency (New Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica). The New Zealand is the last landmass discovered on earth and hence wears the crown of the Youngest Country on Earth.
The humans who first got settled in the geography of New Zealand were Eastern Polynesians who came to the area as migrates sometimes between AD 800 and 1300. Later in few next centuries these settlers developed into a different culture, which is now known as Māori. These people further divided into hapū (subtribes) who sometimes fought, other times cooperate to each other. Later a cluster of Māori people migrated to the Chatham Islands and developed their culture called the Moriori culture.
The Dutch rover Abel Janszoon Tasman and his crew reached New Zealand sometimes in 1642. The Māori people given enormous resistance to Dutch crews and forced them to return. Later British explorer James Cook reached New Zealand in 1769 and mapped almost all the coastline. Following Cook’s voyage several Europeans and North Americans approached New Zealand for whaling, sailing and trading ships. These people make exchange of European food and goods especially metal tools and Weapons for the Māori timber, food, artifacts and water. The potato and the musket altered Māori agriculture and warfare. The Musket war came to an end after the tribal imbalance of arms had been resolved.
In the start of 19th century, Christian missionaries started approaching New Zealand and motivated Māori population to adopt Christianity. Much of the Māori people change their religion. The French was very much interested in settling in New Zealand. The British follows and sent William Hobson to New Zealand to maintain sovereignty and negotiate a treaty with Māori. On 6 February, the Treaty of Waitangi was signed on the Bay of Islands. The Treaty is respected as New Zealand's foundation as a nation and is valued by Māori as a guarantee of their rights.
From 1840 onward huge number of European settlers approached New Zealand. Māori people were interested in doing business with the 'Pakeha,' as they called them, and many ‘iwi’ tribes became wealthy. As number of migrants increased in the area New Zealand caught in war in 1860s and 1870s, which further resulted in the loss of much of the Māori land. However, there are no doubtless details available about correct interpretation of European settlement.
New Zealand was granted limited self-government in the 1850s and by the late nineteenth century was a fully self-governing country in most senses. In 1893, New Zealand became the first country in the world to grant women the right to vote. In 1907, New Zealand became an independent Dominion and a fully independent nation in 1947 when the Statute of Westminster (1931) was ratified. Gradually, New Zealand became more independent politically and more dependent economically.
In 1890s New Zealand’s economy was fully dependent on export of meat and dairy products to Britain. New Zealand was a wholehearted member of the British Empire, fought the Boer War, World War I and World War II and backed Britain in the Suez Crisis. The country suffered huge depressions during 1930’s followed which elections to the first labor government were held that recognized a comprehensive welfare state and a protectionist economy.
Following World War II New Zealand experienced increasing opulence. Though, some social problems were developed. By the 1970s New Zealand developed good relations with all the developed countries but ties with Britain weakened, the traditional trade with Britain was under threat because of Britain's membership of the European Economic Community. Major economic changes took place in 1980s under the fourth labor government, which at large led by Finance Minister Roger Douglas, and commonly referred to as "Rogernomics." A Waitangi Tribunal has been set up to hear complaints that the Treaty of Waitangi has not been honored, and many claims have been settled, with others (as of 2007) still to be heard.
The geographic area of New Zealand is 103,738 sq mi consisting of north island 44,274 sq mi, south island 44,274 sq mi and many nearby smaller islands like Stewart Island 674 sq mi and many other minor outlying islands. New Zealand expands 994 mi NNE–SSW and 280 mi ESE–WNW. The coastline of New Zealand is 9,404 mi long. New Zealand's capital city, Wellington, is located on the southern tip of North Island. The north island forms the spine of mountain ranges running through the middle, with gentle rolling farmland on both sides. The Volcanic Plateau, an active volcanic and thermal area, dominates the central North Island. The Southern Alps form the backbone of the South Island. To the east of the Southern Alps is the rolling farmland of Otago and Southland, and the vast, flat Canterbury Plains.
New Zealand's oldest rocks are over 500 million years old, and were once part of Gondwanaland. New Zealand sits on two tectonic plates - the Pacific and the Australian and on the Pacific Ring of Fire. The North Island and some parts of the South Island sit on the Australian Plate, while the rest of the South Island sits on the Pacific. These plates are constantly shifting and grinding into each other, that’s why New Zealand gets a lot of geological actions throughout the year. The mountain ranges in the north islands are as high as 6000 ft. The volcanic peaks of Egmont, or Taranaki (8,261 ft), Ruapehu (9,176 ft), Ngauruhoe (7,513 ft), and Tongariro (6,457 ft) are exceptions; the last three volcanoes are still active.
Rotorua is the place of geothermal tourist activities, with lots of mud pools, geysers, and hot springs in its active thermal areas — not to mention its trademark ‘Sulphur City’ smell. Maori who used the hot springs for cooking and bathing first settled the area. For the health benefits that it offers got the name ‘Cureland’. Other regions to enjoy hot springs and thermal activities are the North Island north of Turangi the Hanmer Springs and the West Coast in the South Island.
New Zealand offers moist climate with seasonal variations in temperature and rainfall. Western winds prevail here with strong winds in the Cook Strait Area. There is considerable variation in rainfall between the eastern and western sides of the Southern Alps. Mean annual temperatures at sea level range from about 15°C in the northern part of the North Island to 12°C in the southern part of the South Island. Mean annual rainfall ranges from around 12 inches near Dunedin to more than 315 inches in the Southern Alps.
New Zealand is rich in flora because of many numbers of sunny days in a year and good rainfall. More than 80% plant and fern species found here are native. Starting from the kauri forests of the far north to the mountain beech forests and alpine tussock of the Southern Alps there are majestic evergreen native forests that include rimu, totara, many varieties of beech, and the largest native tree of them all, the giant kauri. There also found different species of Shrubs, ferns, and many mosses and lichens. The yellow flowers of the kowhai tree are prettiest to eyes. The beautiful pohutukawa trees are found in the North Island. The bright red flowers bloom in December, giving it the title of New Zealand’s Christmas tree.
More than 20% of New Zealand is covered with national parks, forest areas and reserves. There find wide variety of beautiful native birds and plants, as well as direct descendants of prehistoric wildlife, including the tuatara, weta, and giant snail. As Time magazine said, New Zealand is an ‘ultimate storehouse for discontinued zoological models’. New Zealand’s national symbol is a nocturnal flightless bird with nostrils on the end of its large beak. New Zealand is rich in marine life too. The whale watching and swimming with dolphins are two of New Zealand’s most highly recommended tourist activities.
The people living in New Zealand are mainly New Zealand Europeans, which constitutes to about 74.5% of population. Others include Maori 9.7%, European 4.6%, Pacific Islander 3.8%, and Asian and others 7.4%. The most important minority group in New Zealand is of Maori people, which is a Polynesian group with a distinctive culture and a well-ordered social system. In the 20th Century and mainly after World War II a more progressive government policy prevailed. By 1981, four-fifths of all Maoris lived in urban areas.
There is no state church in New Zealand. According to 2001 census there is about 55% population of Christian (Anglicans – 15%, Roman Catholic – 13%, Presbyterians- 11%, Methodist – 3%, Baptist – 1%, and Ratana – 1%). About 1% population is of Hindus. Sikhs, Muslims and Rastafarians are also in small numbers.
English is the language of communication in New Zealand. Maori is still spoken among Maori people and taught in Maori educational settings. There are Maori language pre schools, immersion primary schools and many radio stations.
The government system in New Zealand is constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. Under the Royal Titles Act (1953), Queen Elizabeth II is Queen of New Zealand and is represented as head of state by the Governor-General.
New Zealand is the only country in the world in which all the highest offices in the land have been occupied simultaneously by women: Queen Elizabeth II, Governor-General Dame Silvia Cartwright, Prime Minister Helen Clark, Speaker of the House of Representatives Margaret Wilson and Chief Justice Dame Sian Elias were all in office between March 2005 and August 2006. The parliament of New Zealand has only one Chamber, i.e. the House of Representatives. General Parliamentary elections are held on every three years. New Zealand has no written constitution; the Constitution Act 1986 is the principal formal statement of New Zealand's constitutional structure. The highest court in New Zealand is Supreme Court. Other courts in New Zealand are High Courts, Court of Appeal and Subordinate Courts.
The foundation of New Zealand’s economy is largely based on export of agricultural products. Principal agricultural produce includes dairy products, meat, forest products, fruit and vegetables, fish, and wool. New Zealand was a direct recipient of many of the reforms accomplished under the Uruguay Round of trade negotiations, with agriculture in general and the dairy sector in particular enjoying many new trade opportunities. The country has considerable hydroelectric power and reserves of natural gas. Foremost manufacturing segments are food processing, wood and paper products, and metal fabrication. Service industries, predominantly financial, insurance, and business services, form a large part of New Zealand's economy.
Since 1984, New Zealand government has slashed the subsidies on agriculture and followed more liberal approach for imports of goods and services. The reformation and sale of government-owned enterprises in the 1990s abridged government's function in the economy and allowed the retirement of some public debt. As a result, New Zealand becomes one of the most open economies in the world. The lingering epoch of good economic expansion led the unemployment rate to drop from 7.8% in 1999 to 3.7% as of December 2006. New Zealand has developed good trade ties with Australia, Thailand and United States. Australia is New Zealand’s best business partner and then comes United States. New Zealand has had a free trade agreement with Singapore since 2001.
The market-led economy proposes loads of benefits for U.S. exporters and investors. Investment opportunities exist in chemicals, food preparation, finance, tourism, and forest products, as well as in franchising. The best sales and investment prospects are for whole aircraft and aircraft parts, medical or veterinary instruments, motor vehicles, information technology, hotel and restaurant equipment, telecommunications, tourism, franchising, food processing and packaging, and medical equipment. On the agricultural side, the best prospects are for fresh fruit, snack foods, and soybean meal. New Zealand welcomes and encourages foreign investment without discrimination. A number of U.S. companies have subsidiary branches in New Zealand. The New Zealand dollar (NZ$) is a paper currency of 100 cents; it replaced the New Zealand pound on 10 July 1967.
International students looking to study abroad in New Zealand shall require to fulfill following criteria to apply for a Visa.
Visa Requirements To Study In New Zealand
- Accepted by a college / university in New Zealand to pursue a Full Time Course.
- Possess required eligibility certificates to take admission in one such.
- Hold a valid Passport for the intended period of stay.
- Proof of income or sufficient means to support studies in New Zealand
- Health Certificate issued by a competent hospital from the home country.
Candidates holding above documents may apply for Visa with nearest Foreign Mission Office of New Zealand in the home country.
New Zealand also welcomes candidates for part time studies, log term studies like research programs and training programs etc. For detailed visa requirements for different level of studies you are advised to check with Official Immigration Website of New Zealand Government.
List of Universities in New Zealand
New Zealand @ A GlanceCapital: Wellington
Geographic Coordinates: 41°17′S 174°27′E
Largest city: Auckland
Official languages: English, Māori, NZ Sign Language
Demonym: New Zealander / Kiwi (informal)
Government : Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Independence from the United Kingdom
Responsible government 7 May 1856
Dominion 26 September 1907
Statute of Westminster adopted 25 November 1947
De jure independence 10 December 1947
Total Area: 103,483 sq mi
Population: 4,596,700 (June 2015 estimate)
Population Density: 44.4/sq mi
GDP Per capita: $35,966 (2015 estimate)
Currency: New Zealand dollar ($) (NZD)
Time zone: NZST[n 5] (UTC+12)
Summer (DST) NZDT (UTC+13) (Sep to Apr)
Drives on the: left
Calling code: +64
Internet TLD .nz