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German lanuage as a study discipline

German language belongs to Indo – Germanic group of languages, it has resemblance with Norwegian, Danish, Swedish, and English languages. German has privilege of Mother Tongue and National Language of people of Germany. Outside Germany it’s also spoken in Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, and Luxembourg. German is the language of European Union and also recognized as official language of Austria.  German has more than 105 million native speakers and more than 80 million non-native speakers. Standard German is widely taught in schools, colleges and universities across the Globe and Goathe Institutes worldwide.

On the basis of Historical divisions, German can be classified into three main periods- Old German (c. 750—c. 1050); Middle German (c.1050—c.1500); and Modern German (c.1500 to the present). The oldest evidences in German are found from dates back to 750. During this era local dialects were utilized in writing and there was no standard language. During middle era, in 14th century, with the development of many Chancelleries of Holy Roman Empire German language has developed into more systematic written form, the organized form of German was used in place of Latin which was till then dominated official language.

The Middle Saxon language had given birth to Modern Low Saxon language. It was into practice from 1100 to 1500 and further divided into West Low Saxon and East Low Saxon.   The neighborhood languages were Middle Dutch in the West and Middle High German in the South, which later replaced by Early New High German. 

The German got its newest form in which it is today in 18th century. The modern form of language is widely used as standard language in Churches, Educational settings, theaters and broadcasting. German dialects, which are mainly different from Standard German language, are used in Germany, Eastern France, Liechtenstein, and L√ętzeburgesch. In Luxembourg a German dialect is in practice as official language and spoken by more than 400 000 people here.

Duden Handbook published in 1880 first described the grammatical and orthographic rules and in 1901 these turns into the recognized definition of German language. The reform in German language took place in 1998. Now the newest modified German is taught in educational settings while both old and new language exists in media settings.

German is one of the most popular foreign languages in India. German is taught as third language in schools. Colleges offer degree level programs in foreign language where German is taught with couple of other foreign languages like French, Spanish etc. Post Graduate and research programs are also offered through language departments of various universities. Goathe Institutes also imparts training in German language at different locations. Many private institutes offer certificate programs in German language. The foreign language departments of different universities offer part time education in German besides offering full time programs. German is one of the most sought after foreign language among Indian learners.

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