• Digestive System: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, rectum, and anus.
• Endocannabinoid system: neuromodulatory lipids and receptors involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, motor learning, synaptic plasticity, and memory.
• Endocrine system: communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands such as the hypothalamus, pituitary or pituitary gland, pineal body or pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroids, and adrenals or adrenal glands
• Integumentary system: skin, hair and nails
• Immune system: the system that fights off disease; composed of leukocytes, tonsils, adenoids, thymus, and spleen.
• Lymphatic system: structures involved in the transfer of lymph between tissues and the blood stream, the lymph and the nodes and vessels that transport it.
• Musculoskeletal system: muscles provide movement and a skeleton provides structural support and protection with bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons.
• Nervous system: collecting, transferring and processing information with brain, spinal cord and nerves
• Reproductive system: the sex organs; in the female; ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, and in the male; testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis.
• Respiratory system: the organs used for breathing, the pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm.
• Urinary system: kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra involved in fluid balance, electrolyte balance and excretion of urine.
• Vestibular system: contributes to our balance and our sense of spatial orientation.
Common names of well known parts of the human body, from top to bottom:
• Head – Forehead – Jaw – Cheek – Chin
• Neck – Shoulder
• Arm – Elbow – Wrist – Hand – Finger – Thumb
• Spine – Chest – Thorax
• Abdomen – Groin
• Hip – Buttocks – Leg – Thigh – Knee – Calf – Heel – Ankle – Foot – Toe
• Eye, ear, nose, mouth, teeth, tongue, throat, adam's apple, breast, penis, scrotum, clitoris, vulva, navel
Human anatomical parts named after people• Adam's apple – Adam, Biblical character
• Long thoracic nerve of Bell – Sir Charles Bell
• Renal columns of Bertin – Exupere Joseph Bertin
• Calot's triangle – Jean-François Calot
• Circle of Willis - arterial circle in base of brain - Dr. Thomas Willis
• Darwin's tubercle – Charles Darwin
• Pouch of Douglas – James Douglas
• Fallopian tube – Gabriele Falloppio
• Gartner's duct – Hermann Gartner
• Golgi apparatus and Golgi receptor – Camillo Golgi
• Loop of Henle – F. G. J. Henle
• Kerckring's valves – Theodor Kerckring
• Langer's lines – Karl Langer
• Langer's lines – Karl Langer
• Papez circuit – James Papez
• Ruffini's corpuscles – Angelo Ruffini
• Skene's gland – Alexander Skene
• Torcular herophili – Herophilus
• Sinus of Valsalva – Antonio Maria Valsalva
• Wolffian duct – Kaspar Friedrich Wolff
• Zonule of Zinn – Johann Gottfried Zinn
Human Body System
The human body system can be distributed over 4 separate systems as follows-
• Digestive System
• Respiratory and Circulatory System
• Musculoskeletal System
• Nervous System
Digestive System- The digestive system of human body is responsible for digestion of food in humans. The complete process is divided over following stages.
Ingestion - Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism. In animals, it normally is accomplished by taking in the substance through the mouth into the gastrointestinal tract, such as through eating or drinking.
Digestion - The food you eat contains the nutrients that serve as building blocks, and provide energy and nourishment throughout your body. In food, nutrients are contained in large molecules that are chemically and physically bound together. Digestion is the process of breaking down these tightly bound molecules into individual nutrients that can be taken into your body and used to support its functions. Simply defined, digestion is cutting things down to a size in which they can be absorbed into your body.
Digestion occurs in the gastrointestinal tract-the 20 to 30 foot long tube extending from your mouth to your anus. Whatever you eat flows through this system, but until it is absorbed through the intestinal tract, the nutrients in food are physically outside of your body.
Absorption in Human Body
Absorption of Carbohydrate and Protein
Carbohydrates and proteins are absorbed in the small intestine, but their component molecules -- monosaccharides and amino acids, respectively -- cannot pass through the cell membranes of the small intestine into the bloodstream. Transporter proteins in the cells lining the small intestine use sodium to help move monosaccharides and amino acids into the blood.
Absorption of Fats
Triglycerides, the fat molecules in food, consist of a backbone molecule called glycerol bound to three molecules called fatty acids. When you digest fat, it breaks down into two fatty acids and a monoglyceride, which is a glycerol with one fatty acid attached. These molecules do not need to be transported across the small intestine lining; they can migrate directly into the cells of the lining. From there, they proceed into the lymphatic system and eventually make their way into the bloodstream.
Assimilation - The absorption of nutrients into the body after digestion in the intestine and its transformation in biological tissues and fluids.
Defecation- Defecation is the final act of digestion by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus. Waves of muscular contraction known as peristalsis in the walls of the colon move fecal matter through the digestive tract towards the rectum. Undigested food may also be expelled this way in the process called egestion.
The main organs that takes part in Digestion
• The liver is a large, meaty organ that sits on the right side of the belly.
• Liver weigh about 3 pounds, the liver is reddish-brown in color and feels rubbery to the touch.
• It's protected by the rib cage.
• The liver has two large sections, called the right and the left lobes
• The gallbladder sits under the liver, along with parts of the pancreas and intestines.
• The liver and these organs work together to digest, absorb, and process food.
• The liver's main job is to filter the blood coming from the digestive tract, before passing it to the rest of the body.
• The liver also detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs.
• The liver secretes bile that ends up back in the intestines.
• The liver also makes proteins important for blood clotting and other functions.
• The gallbladder (cholecyst, gall bladder, biliary vesicle) is a small organ that aids mainly in fat digestion and concentrates bile produced by the liver.
• In humans, the loss of the gallbladder is usually easily tolerated.
• The surgical removal of the gallbladder is called a cholecystectomy.
• The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine system of vertebrates.
• It is both an endocrine gland producing several important hormones, including insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide, and a digestive organ, secreting pancreatic juice containing digestive enzymes that assist the absorption of nutrients and the digestion in the small intestine.
• The enzymes help to further break down the carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids in the chyme.
Islets of Langerhans
• Also called islands of Langerhans, Langerhans, islets of irregularly shaped patches of endocrine tissue located within the pancreas of most vertebrates.
• They are named for the German physician Paul Langerhans, who first described them in 1869.
• The normal human pancreas contains about 1,000,000 islets.
• The islets consist of four distinct cell types, of which three (alpha, beta, and delta cells) produce important hormones; the fourth component (C cells) has no known function.
• The Glucagon has a major role in maintaining normal concentrations of glucose in blood, and is often described as having the opposite effect of insulin. That is, glucagon has the effect of increasing blood glucose levels.
• Glucagon is a linear peptide of 29 amino acids.
• Its primary sequence is almost perfectly conserved among vertebrates, and it is structurally related to the secretin family of peptide hormones.
• Glucagon is synthesized as proglucagon and proteolytically processed to yield glucagon within alpha cells of the pancreatic islets.
• Proglucagon is also expressed within the intestinal tract, where it is processed not into glucagon, but to a family of glucagon-like peptides / enteroglucagon.
• The Somatostatin also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or somatotropin release-inhibiting factor (SRIF)) or somatotropin release-inhibiting hormone is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G-protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
• Somatostatin has two active forms produced by alternative cleavage of a single preproprotein: one of 14 amino acids, the other of 28 amino acids.