Showing posts with label Zoology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Zoology. Show all posts

General Knowledge for Competitive Examinations

General Knowledge (GK) makes Integral Part of many competitive examinations in India. The GK Test examine your awareness and abilities from in and around your surroundings. In this portion questions are asked from day to day life experiences. Generally, whether its and admission test or recruitment exam questions are asked from the areas those we discuss often among friends, family, or listen over radio, television and social media etc.

General Knowledge: Zoology

The animals, Birds and Bees together with humans makes living world beautiful. Humans exploit planet upto the maximum; for the very reason we should know about other creatures so as to protect them or protect us from them. Personally I think everyone shall read Zoology. My favorite zoology book was by Dr Veerbala Rastogi.

For the readers of this blog who prepare for different exams like UPSC Exam,  SSC Exam, Bank PO Exam, Teachers' Training Exam, Defence Exam, Scholarship Test, Admission Test etc I have gathered here General Knowledge Lessons.

Introduction to Zoology

Human Blood

Major organ systems

Circulatory System

Introduction to Botany

  • The systematic study of plants and trees is called Botany.
  • The ophrastus is called Father of Botany.

Sex Determination in Humans

The male sex chromosome in humans if XY; the female sex chromosome is XX. In the times of gamete buildup, in male of the sperms holds X chromosome while other half holds Y chromosome. In female all gametes contains only X chromosome. When a male gamete carrying X chromosome, fertilize and ova, the result zygote developed would be a female. And When a male gamete carrying Y chromosome, fertilize and ova, the result zygote developed would be a male.

Biology of Cell

•    Cell is main basic structural unit of all organisms, microscopic in nature, it contains cytoplasmic material and nuclear material in a semi permeable membrane, this membrane is called cell wall in case of plants.

•    Biological organisms may contain a single cell (unicellur) or multiple cell (multicellur).

•    Each cell in organisms works like a programmable chipset to function; it takes nutrients, converts nutrients into energy and performs specialized tasks necessary for life.

•    Robert Hooke discovered the cell in 1665.

•    First Cell Theory was developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann.

Medical Inventions and Discoveries


Invention
Scientist
Year
Adhesive plaster-covered bandages
Paul Beiersdorf
1882
Anaesthetic
William Morton
1846
Anthrax (vaccine)
Louis Pasteur
1881
Antiseptic
Joseph Lister
1865
Artificial heart (implant, human)
Denton Cooley
1969

Diseases Caused by Viruses in Humans

Here is a list of the diseases that viruses cause in the human body. Only proper hygiene and care can help prevent these diseases. While some of them are easily preventable and curable, some can prove to be fatal if not diagnosed and treated on time. Hence, a viral infection must never be taken lightly.

List of Diseases Caused by Bacteria

The human body is vulnerable towards bacteria. Here given diseases caused by different bacteria and affected organ

Balanced Diet

A healthy diet is one that helps maintain or improve general health. It is important for lowering many chronic health risks, such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and cancer. A healthy diet involves consuming appropriate amounts of all essential nutrients and an adequate amount of water. Nutrients can be obtained from many different foods, so there are numerous diets that may be considered healthy. A healthy diet needs to have a balance of macro nutrients (fats, proteins, and carbohydrates), calories to support energy needs, and micro nutrients to meet the needs for human nutrition without inducing toxicity or excessive weight gain from consuming excessive amounts.

Water and Human Body

The water is the most important nutrient and the most abundant substance in the human body.  Water comprises about three quarters of the human mass and is a major component in every cell.  In addition water is important to human health for many reasons; some of them are listed below.

Minerals and Their Function in Human Body

Calcium  >>>   Builds bones and teeth, muscle contraction, heart action, nerve impulses, blood clotting
Magnesium  >>>   Bones, liver, muscles, transfer of intercellular water, alkaline balance, neuromuscular activity
Sodium  >>>   Electrolyte balance, body fluid volume, nerve impulse condition

Vitamins

A vitamin is an organic compound required as a vital nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism.

The discovery dates of the different types of vitamins and their sources

Functions of Fats in the Human Body

•    Fats on oxidation provide nearly twice as much energy as that given by carbohydrates.
•    The main function of fats in the body is to provide energy: By supplying energy, fats save proteins from being used for energy and allow them to perform their more important role of building and repairing tissues.

Functions of Protein

Protein has a range of essential functions in the body, including the following:

•    Required for building and repair of body tissues (including muscle)
•    Enzymes, hormones, and many immune molecules are proteins
•    Essential body processes such as water balancing, nutrient transport, and muscle contractions require protein to function.

Nutrients

The nutrients are essential for biosynthesis. To run life human beings and other organisms performs some key functions termed as nutrition. This is one of the basic functions of life in which includes intake of food, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion of food. These exist mainly three categories of substances which provide energy to body when we take food. These substances and their characteristics are discussed below.

The nervous system

The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body. The nervous system in humans consists of three parts, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and automatic nervous system.

Circulatory System


•  The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids, electrolytes and lymph), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body. The circulatory system help fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH, and to maintain homeostasis.
•    The discovery of blood circulation or blood flow was done by William Harvey in 1628.

Major organ systems

•    Circulatory system: pumping and channeling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart, blood, and blood vessels.
•    Digestive System: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, rectum, and anus.
•    Endocannabinoid system: neuromodulatory lipids and receptors involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, motor learning, synaptic plasticity, and memory.

Human Blood


•    Human blood is the fluid circulated by the heart through the human vascular system.

•    There are three cellular components of human blood: red blood cells (r.b.c.), white blood cells (w.b.c.), and platelets.

Introduction to Zoology

Zoology – The systematic study of the structure, form and distribution of animals is called Zoology.

The animal kingdom can be classified over two sub groups – 1. Unicellular animal; and 2. Multi-cellular animal.