Ireland is a country in northwestern Europe. It is the largest island in the British archipelago. Irish Sea and North Channel separates it from Great Britain in the west and Saint George’s Channel from the Southeast. The southern and western ends of Ireland meets to North Atlantic Ocean. Country shares border with Northern Ireland, which is a province of the United Kingdom.
Britain started taking control over territory of Ireland during 12th Century and the end of 17th century gained full control. Ireland declared a British territory by the Act of Union of 1800. It was gripped under famine in 1840, as the staple food crop ‘Irish Potato’ was damaged by the disease, as a result millions of people died and many left the homeland in search of food and work.
In the 19th century Irish people revolted against British rule, war was fought between Irish people and British Monarchy, later the British monarchy agreed to divide the territory. In 1921, British separated northeastern portion of Ireland and made it a province of Great Britain, the land piece renamed as Northern Ireland by the British Monarchy. In 1922, the remaining part of Ireland became self-governing with the establishment of Irish Free State, a territory with the British Commonwealth of Nation.
After the adoption of new constitution in 1937 the name of Free State was changed to Eire. Ireland became a Republic in 1949. Ireland earned the title of Emerald Isle for its’ vibrant lush green landscapes. Ireland is a member of European Union since 1973.
Ireland is a country of mountains and rivers. Wicklow Mountains in the east are principal mountain ranges. These mountain ranges lies just south of Dublin approximately 3000 ft above sea level. Derryveagh Mountains and Blue Stack Mountains of Donegal in the northwest; the Maumturk Mountains and Nephin Beg Range, the Caha Mountains in the southwest, the Boggeragh, Galty, and Knockmealdown mountains in the south Macgillicuddy’s Reeks are other smaller mountain ranges in the country. In the mountains of the southwest are the three small and picturesque Lakes of Killarney.
The principal rivers of Ireland are the Erne and the Shannon, the longest river in the British Isles. Major loughs include Ree and Derg on the Shannon and Mask, Corrib, and Conn in the west.
The climate in Ireland is maritime temperate with certain seasonal and regional variations. The Gulf Stream brings warm and moist winds from the Atlantic Ocean to the region. The average temperature in winters varies from 4 to 7 degree Celsius, temperature in summers’ ranges from 15 to 17 degree Celsius. The annual average rainfall in Ireland is around 1000 mm.
The animal life in Ireland is pretty similar to that of France or England. Though due to deforestation in forestland the animals like bear, wolf, wildcat, beaver, wild cattle, and the giant Irish deer gradually disappeared. The great auk, or garefowl, was exterminated in the 19th century. Irish farmers have used Connemara pony since prehistoric times. Numerous varieties of birds like gulls are also found in Ireland
The most valuable natural resource in Ireland is lowland soil, which is very supportive to grasslands, cereals and root crops. Ireland is rich in under earth resources, which includes deposits of zinc, lead, gypsum, and alumina. Some natural gas deposits are found off the southern and western coasts.
The early people living in Ireland were tribes from south France and Iberia. Presently people living in Ireland mainly belong to Gaelic ancestry. The Irish population also includes English, Scottish, Anglo-Norman, Viking and Welsh people. The Irish Travellers are an ethnic minority group. Since centuries Ireland has attracted people from all geographies. English and Irish are official languages. A large section of population, approximately 87% is Roman Catholics. The country also has a small Jewish community and some other ethnic minority groups.
Ireland is a parliamentary representative democratic republic. The President of Ireland is head of the state. The prime minister is head of the government and head of the pluriform multiparty system. The government of Ireland has executive power; Legislative power is vested on both the government and the bicameral national parliament. The judiciary in Ireland is free from the government and the legislature.
The constitution of Ireland was adopted in 1937 by referendum, and may only be amended in the same manner. It is also widely referred to in English by its Irish title, Bunreacht na hÉireann. The constitution establishes an independent state based on a system of representative democracy, and guarantees certain fundamental rights.
Earlier, the economy of Ireland was dependent on Agriculture. In past few decades the burden of economic growth from agricultural sector has eased up by trade, industry and investment collectively. During 1995 – 2000, the economic growth in Ireland was 10%; during 2001 – 2004 the growth was 7%. Industry accounts for 46% of GDP.
Ireland is member of the Australia Group, BIS, British-Irish Council, CE, Celtic League, EBRD, ECE, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICC, ITUC, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, International Maritime Organization, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), ISO, ITU, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNIKOM, UNITAR, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UNMOP, UNTAET, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WEU (observer), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, and the Zangger Committee.
Visa Requirements To Study In Ireland
International Students require to apply for a Visa to study in Ireland. The common minimum requirements to apply for a Irelandn student visa are:
- Accepted by a college / university in Ireland to pursue a Full Time Course.
- Possess required eligibility certificates to take admission in one such.
- Hold a valid Passport for the intended period of stay.
- Proof of income or sufficient means to support studies in Ireland
- Health Certificate issued by a competent hospital from the home country.
- Candididates holding above documents may apply for Visa with nearest Foreign Mission Office of Ireland in the home country.
Ireland also welcomes candidates for part time sudies, log term studies like research programs and training programs etc. For detailed visa requirements for different level of studies you are advised to check with Official Website of Ireland Government.
List of Universities in Ireland
Ireland @ A Glance
Official Name: Republic of Ireland
National Anthem: Amhrán na bhFiann (The Soldier's Song)
Largest City: Dublin
Official Languages: Irish, English
Government: Republic and Parliamentary Democracy
Independence from the United Kingdom
- Declared 24 April 1916
- Ratified 21 January 1919
- Recognized 6 December 1922
- Current constitution
Accession to the European Union: January 1, 1973
Total Area: 27 133 sq mi
Population: 4 239 848 (According to 2006 estimates)
Currency: Euro (€) (EUR)
Time Zone: WET (UTC+0)
Summer (DST) IST (WEST) (UTC+1)
Internet TLD: .ie
Calling Code: +353