The official name of Mexico is United Mexican States. People also call it Mexican Republic. The Mexican Republic is a country in North America. With an area of 2 million square kilometers Mexico is the fifth largest nation in the Americas and 15 largest in the world. Mexico is the only Latin American member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) since 1994; Mexico is firmly recognized as an upper middle-income country.
As the only Latin American member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) since 1994, Mexico is firmly established as an upper middle-income country. Elections held in July 2000 marked the first time that an opposition party won the presidency to the Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional: PRI), that held it since 1929, culminating a process of political alternation that had begun at the local level since the 1980s. Mexico shares borders with the United States of America, Guatemala and Belize.
The main geographic feature of Mexico is the great highland central plateau, which makes most of the width of the country, extending from United States border to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The plateau averages 4,000 ft in elevation in the north to over 8,000 ft in the central part of the country. And enclosed by two high cordilleras the Sierra Madre Oriental on the east and the Sierra Madre Occidental on the west, each separated from the coast by lowland plains. The ranges rise to over 10,000 ft, and some volcanic peaks exceed 16,400 ft; Pico de Orizaba, or Citlaltépetl (18,702 ft), Popocatépetl (17,887 ft), and Ixtaccíhuatl (17,342 ft) are the highest. The plateau falls to the low Isthmus of Tehuantepec and then rises again to Chiapas Highland to the south. The lowlands of Tabasco, Campeche, and Yucatán lie north and east of Chiapas.
The Rio Grande (known as the Río Bravo del Norte in Mexico) is the only important waterways in Mexico, which extends for about 2,100 km of the boundary with the US. The Papaloapan is an important source of water. The other short rivers are- the Lerma, Santiago, Usumacinta (part of the boundary with Guatemala), Grijalva, Balsas, Pánuco, and the Soto la Marina. The Lake Chapala, in Jalisco State is the largest lake in Mexico, which covers about 651 sq mi. Like many other geographies of the world the climate here too varies in accordance with altitude and rainfall.
The tropical and subtropical zone (tierra caliente), ranging from sea level to about 3,000 ft consists of the coastal plains, the Yucatán Peninsula, and the lower areas of southern Mexico. These areas have a mean temperature of 25–27°C, with a minimum of 16°C and a maximum of almost 49°C. The temperate zone (tierra templada), at elevations 3,000–6,000 ft has a temperate-to-warm climate and a mean temperature of 21°C.
The Mexico City and most other important populated centers are in the cool zone (tierra fría), starting at about 6,000 ft, with a mean annual temperature of 17°C. The highest mountain peaks are always covered with snow. Most of Mexico does not get the required rainfall. The two coastal belts covering about 12% of the total area—from Tampico south along the Gulf of Mexico and from the state of Colima south along the Pacific—receive an average rain 39–118 in per year.
Annual rainfall may exceed 200 inches in Tabasco and Chiapas. In parts of Baja California, virtually there is no rain. Precipitation is adequate in central Mexico except at altitudes above 6,000 ft, while the northern states are semidesert / desert. Heavy rainfall occurs during summer months in most of the places.
When it matters to ‘Flora and Fauna’, Mexico is considered as 17th mega diverse countries of the world and home to 10 – 12% of worlds biodiversity with over 200 000 different species. Mexico ranks 1st in biodiversity in reptiles with 707 known species, 2nd in mammals with 438 species, 4th in amphibians with 290 species, and 4th in flora too, with 26,000 different species.
The Mexico has 17 million hectares "Protected Natural Areas consisting 34 reserve biospheres (unaltered ecosystems), 64 national parks, 4 natural monuments (protected in perpetuity for their aesthetic, scientific or historical value), 26 areas of protected flora and fauna, 4 areas for natural resource protection (conservation of soil, hydrological basins and forests) and 17 sanctuaries (zones rich in diverse species).
The present day Mexican geography was inhabited in the past by many of the most advanced Amerindian cultures of the ancient Americas. The Mayan civilization in the Yucatán Peninsula began about 2500 BC, flourished about AD 300–900, and then declined until its conquest by the Spanish. The Mayas had a well-developed calendar and a concept of zero; skillful in the construction of stone buildings and the carving of stone monuments, they built great cities at Chichen Itzá, Mayapán, Uxmal, and many other sites.
About 1200–400 BC the Olmecs had a civilization with its center at La Venta. In the early 10th century AD the Toltecs, under Ce Acatl Topiltzin, founded their capital of Tollan (now Tula) and made the Nahua culture predominant in the Valley of Mexico until the early 13th century. The Aztec empire was found in1325. In 1519 when the Aztec rule was at its high the Spanish conquistadors approached Mexico and conquered over it by 1521. The Spaniards introduced Roman Catholicism in Mexico.
In the next 25 years Mexico has witnessed at least 30 changes in government. In 1836 Texas gained independence from Mexico and in 1845 joined the United States. Spain ruled Mexico as the viceroyalty of New Spain for three centuries. A reform government was established in 1855 after a revolt against Santa Anna, and a new liberal constitution was adopted in 1857. In 1861, during a period of civil strife, French troops under Emperor Napoleon III intervened in Mexico, ostensibly because Mexico had not paid its debts; in 1863, they captured Mexico City and installed Archduke Maximilian of Austria as emperor, with his Belgian wife, Carlota, as empress.
After the French troops withdrew in 1866, partly because the United States protested their presence and partly because Napoleon needed them in France, forces loyal to Benito Juárez and led by José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz regained control of the country. Benito Juárez, the leader of the reform movement, became president in 1858. In 1876, Díaz seized power and assumed the presidency, a position he held (except for 1880–84, when a subordinate exercised nominal power) until 1911 when he resigned from the post and leave country as heavy riot took place in Mexico City.
After Diz once more elected for the Presidency in 1910, the Mexican revolution occurred. The protesters were middle class political liberals and rebellion of land hungry peasants. Often these two groups clashed. The Plan of San Luis Potosí on October 5, 1910 caused the main spark in which Francisco Indalecio Madero lost the vote to Diaz and called for nullification of the election. Diaz was forced to resign and in 1911 he left the post of the president and the country. Later in that year Madero was elected the president.
Madero, accused by the Zapatistas of not giving land to the peasants, was ousted and murdered in 1913 by Gen. Victoriano Huerta, who had conspired with the rebels. When Huerta, a corrupt dictator, was driven from power by Venustiano Carranza and Álvaro Obregón in July 1914, a full-scale civil war broke out. This phase of the revolution ended in February 1917, when a new constitution was proclaimed. Carranza was elected the new president. Thus Mexico was not politically stable for long.
The political stability came into the Mexico with the formation of an official government party in 1929, which included most of the social groups, which participated in the social revolution. The party is known since 1945 as Institutional Revolutionary Party (Partido Revolucionario Institucional—PRI). The party was closely associated with business since the 1940s. The most exceptional political leader of the post-1929 era was Lázaro Cárdenas, president during 1934–40, who sought with some success to comprehend the social goals of the revolution. His reforms incorporated huge land redeployment, establishment of labor unions with strong bargaining positions, additional room of education to distant areas of the country, and in 1938, the expropriation of foreign petroleum holdings, mostly US-owned.
A compensation agreement with the United States was reached in 1944, when the two nations were World War II allies. The postwar years in Mexico have been marked by political stability, economic expansion, and the rise of the middle classes, but also by general neglect of the poorest segments of the population. In 1968, one serious political disturbance occurred, the year the Summer Olympics were held in Mexico City, when the army and police clashed with students protesting political repression and human rights abuses.
An economic explosion during the late 1970s, brought about by huge oil export earnings, benefited a small percentage of the people. Mexico City was devastated by a major earthquake in September 1985. In September 1993, changes in federal electoral law and practices were designed to make future elections more tamperproof.
Mexico is a representative, democratic, federal republic, composed of free and sovereign States. The essential parts of this federation are the States of Aguascalientes, Baja California, South Baja California, Logwood, Coahuila, Sights on, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Mexico, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo Leo'n, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonant, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatan, Zacatecas and the Federal District.
The city of Mexico is the Federal, host District of the Powers of the Union and Capital of the Mexican United States.
The Mexican Republic has two legislative houses. The president of Mexico is chief of the state and head of the government. Elections held in July 2000 marked the first time since the 1910 Mexican Revolution that the opposition defeated the party in government, the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI). Vicente FOX of the National Action Party (PAN) was sworn in on 1 December 2000 as the first chief executive elected in free and fair elections.
The government is divided into three main branches: the federal branch, which exercises power over the states, the state branch when state matters are involved, and the municipal branch, which oversees the political and administrative units that make up the states.
The Constitution establishes the municipality as the basis of the territorial division and of the political and administrative organization of the states of the Republic. The multiparty government system in Mexico forms the basis of Democratic coexistence in Mexico. The main political parties are the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), the National Action Party (PAN) and the Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD). All registered political parties may nominate candidates for local and federal elections.
About 88% population living in Mexico associates with Roman Catholic Church and about 6% are protestant. Christian denominations represented include Presbyterians, Jehovah's Witnesses, Seventh-Day Adventists, Mormons, Lutherans, Methodists, Baptists, and Anglicans. Greek and Russian Orthodox communities also live here in small numbers. There are also small numbers of Jews, Buddhists, and Muslims.
Spanish is the official language and spoken by nearly all population. A small portion, nearly 1% population speaks Amerindian language or dialects. There are at least 31 different Amerindian language groups, the principal languages being Nahuatl, Maya, Zapotec, Otomi, and Mixtec.
Acapulco is one of the most important tourist destinations in Mexico. Visitors from around the world flock to Acapulco each year seeking beautiful beaches and crystal blue waters of the deepest azure. Recreational activities abound in Acapulco as well, with everything from deep-sea fishing and scuba diving to tennis and golf competing for the attention of the visitor. Acapulco Bay is a magnificent natural harbor framed by a scenic mountain range. Acapulco Bay rivals the best places in the world for its natural scenic beauty.
According to World Bank Analytics, in Financial Year 2005, the Mexican Economy is an upper middle economy coming under Latin America and the Caribbean region. The economy is a free market type with a mixture of modern and outmoded industry and agriculture in which private sector plays a vital part.
Mexico has made efforts in the direction of more open economic system. More than 90% of Mexican trade has been put under free trade agreements with over 40 countries, of which the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) remains the most influential. Almost 90% of Mexican exports go to the United States and Canada, and close to 55% of its imports come from these two countries. Other major trade agreements have been signed with the European Union, Japan, Israel and many countries in Central and South America.
Visa requirements to study in MexicoInternational Students require to apply for a Visa to study in Mexico. The common minimum requirements to apply for a Mexicon student visa are:
- Accepted by a college / university in Mexico to pursue a Full Time Course.
- Possess required eligibility certificates to take admission in one such.
- Hold a valid Passport for the intended period of stay.
- Proof of income or sufficient means to support studies in Mexico
- Health Certificate issued by a competent hospital from the home country.
- Candididates holding above documents may apply for Visa with nearest Foreign Mission Office of Mexico in the home country.
Mexico also welcomes candidates for part time sudies, log term studies like research programs and training programs etc. For detailed visa requirements for different level of studies you are advised to check with Official Website of Mexico Government.
List of Universities in Mexico
Mexico @ A Glance
Official Name: United Mexican States
National Anthem: Himno Nacional Mexicano
Capital: Mexico City
Largest City: Mexico City
Official Languages: None at federal level
Spanish (de facto)
Government: Presidential Federal Republic
Independence from Spain
- Declared September 16, 1810
- Recognized September 27, 1821
Total Area: 758, 249 sq mi
Population: 108,700,891 (According to 2007 estimates)
Currency: Peso (MXN)
Time Zone: (UTC-8 to -6)
Internet TLD: .mx
Calling Code: +52