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19. Chinese Revolution 1911 and 1949

•    The Chinese Revolution of 1911 is known as Republic Revolution.
•    The Chinese Revolution of 1949 in known as Communist Revolution.
•    In October of 1911, a group of revolutionaries in southern China led a successful revolt against the Qing Dynasty, establishing in its place the Republic of China and ending the imperial system.
•    The First President resigned from power in 1912, in favor of strongman Yuan Shaij-Kai 1912-16.

•    The revolution was brought about by a number of factors, including but not limited to Qing corruption, Western and Japanese subjugation, the growth of local spheres of power, Warlordism, increased poverty amongst the populace, and Chinese intellectuals' growing exposure to Western schools of thought.
•    Another motivation for the Republican supporters was restoring Chinese rule to the Han majority after centuries of Manchu rule.
•    The political basis for the movement was Sun Yat-sen's Three Principles of the People (Sanmin Zhuyi), nationalism, democracy, and socialism.
•    The period 1916-18 is known as Warlord Era, was one of the great chaos, as a number of generals seized control of different provinces.
•    As party known as Koumintang or KMT or Nationalist formed by Sun Yat Sen in 1912 was trying to govern China and control the generals who were busy fighting each other. The KMT leaders were Sun Yat Sen and after his death in 1925, General Chiang Kai-Shek.
•    The Communist Party of China (CPC), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).  The party was founded in 1921 and at first it cooperated with the KMT in its struggle against the Warlords.
•    The communists under the leadership of Mao Tse-Tung also known as Mao Zedong reacted vigorously, and after escaping from surrounding KMT forces embarked on the 6000 mile Long March October 1934 – October 1935 to form a new power base in Northern China.
•    Civil War dragged on, complicated by Japanese interference which culminated in a full scale invasion in 1937.
•    When the second world was ended with a defeat for Japan and their withdrawal from China, the KMT and CCP continued to fight it out.
•    Chiang Kai-shek had help from the USA, but in 1949 it was Mao Tse-tunge and the communists who finally triumphed.
•    Chiang Kai-shek and his supporters fled to island of Taiwan named Formosa.
•    Mao Tse-tunge quickly established control over the whole of China, and he remained leader until his death in 1976. 

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