Showing posts with label World History. Show all posts
Showing posts with label World History. Show all posts

General Knowledge for Competitive Examinations

General Knowledge (GK) makes Integral Part of many competitive examinations in India. The GK Test examine your awareness and abilities from in and around your surroundings. In this portion questions are asked from day to day life experiences. Generally, whether its and admission test or recruitment exam questions are asked from the areas those we discuss often among friends, family, or listen over radio, television and social media etc.

World History General Knowledge for Competitive Examinations

World History is a very broad term. No book is enough to include everything from whole world. Its really really huge. Consuming all History is not a single day task, its a continuous process and everyone should read it. In competitive examination held in India like Railway Recruitment Exam, Banking Exams, SSC Exams, UPSC, PSC Exams, Admission Test, Scholarship Test, Entrance Test and general competitions questions are asked from World History. I dig deeper into couple of syllabus and past years question papers to prepare this History Guide from you. Information is taken largely from sources like Wikipedia, History Books of Different Classes, About.Com, Encyclopedia, CIA World Fact Books and other reliable resources. Hope you will enjoy reading through these lessons for general purpose and for preparation test as well. Following given links to World History Pages published on this website

25. Second World War: September 3, 1939 to August 14, 1945

•    Second World War also abbreviated as WWII or World War II
•    The Axis Powers or Central Powers in World War II were – Germany, Italy entered June 1940, Japan entered December 1941.
•    The Allied Powers or Entente Powers in World War II were Great Britain, France entered June 1941, USA entered December 1941, China entered December 1941

Nine Steps to Second World War

1. The Rearmament of Germany

German rearmament began after Hitler left 1932-4 Geneva Disarmament Conference, stating that as the powers would not disarm to his level, he would rearm Germany to their level. By 1935 rearmament was well underway. This involved conscription and munitions factories.

24. Militarism in Japan

•    During the 20 years after Mussolini’s March on Rome 1922, many other countries faced with severe economic problems, followed the examples of Italy and Germany and turned to fascism or Right-Wing nationalism.

23. Nazism in Germany

"The driving force of the most important changes in this world have been found less in scientific knowledge animating the masses but rather in a fanaticism dominating them and in a hysteria which drives them forward." — Adolph Hitler

22. Fascism in Italy

The term fascism comes from the word fasces; an ax tightly wound with sticks.  Fascism can be defined as a political attitude and mass movement that arose during time between the first and second World War.

21. Economic Development of the World: 1929 - 34

•    The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II.
•    The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in 1930 and lasted until the late 1930s or middle 1940s.
•    It was the longest, most widespread, and deepest depression of the 20th century.

20. Turkish Revolution: 1923

•    Turkey was called ‘Sickman of Europe’.
•    The disintegration of Ottoman Empire started in 19th Century and completed after Turkey’s defeat in the first world war.
•    The allies wanted to established their domination over Turkey itself and to give away parts of Turkey to Greece and Italy.

19. Chinese Revolution 1911 and 1949

•    The Chinese Revolution of 1911 is known as Republic Revolution.
•    The Chinese Revolution of 1949 in known as Communist Revolution.
•    In October of 1911, a group of revolutionaries in southern China led a successful revolt against the Qing Dynasty, establishing in its place the Republic of China and ending the imperial system.
•    The First President resigned from power in 1912, in favor of strongman Yuan Shaij-Kai 1912-16.

18. Russian Revolution

•    The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Russian SFSR.
•    The Emperor was forced to abdicate and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917 (March in the Gregorian calendar; the older Julian calendar was in use in Russia at the time).

17. First World War: August 4, 1914 to November 11, 1918

Causes: The events of July and early August 1914 are a classic case of "one thing led to another" - otherwise known as the treaty alliance system.
Mutual Defense Alliances- Over time, countries throughout Europe made mutual defense agreements that would pull them into battle. Thus, if one country was attacked, allied countries were bound to defend them.

16. Unification of Germany

  • The unification of Germany into a politically integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace's Hall of Mirrors in France.
  • Like Italy, Germany was also divided into many states. At the end of Napoleonic Wars 1792-1815 there were 38 independent states in Germany.
  • In 1815, the German states along with the Austria were organized into a Germanic confederation.
  • Prussia was one of the most powerful states.

15. Unification of Italy: 1848-70

The Italian Unification or Italian Risorgimento is known as the chain of political and military events that produced a united Italian peninsula under the Kingdom of Italy in 1861. These events can be broken down in five stages:

14. French Revolution

The French Revolution began in 1789 and ended in the late 1790s with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte. During this period, French citizens razed and redesigned their country’s political landscape, uprooting centuries-old institutions such as absolute monarchy and the feudal system. Like the American Revolution before it, the French Revolution was influenced by Enlightenment ideals, particularly the concepts of popular sovereignty and inalienable rights. Although it failed to achieve all of its goals and at times degenerated into a chaotic bloodbath, the movement played a critical role in shaping modern nations by showing the world the power inherent in the will of the people.

13. American Revolution 1775 – 83 in Chronology

The American Revolution (1775-83) is also known as the American Revolutionary War and the U.S. War of Independence. The conflict arose from growing tensions between residents of Great Britain's 13 North American colonies and the colonial government, which represented the British crown. Skirmishes between British troops and colonial militiamen in Lexington and Concord in April 1775 kicked off the armed conflict, and by the following summer, the rebels were waging a full-scale war for their independence.

12. The Glorious Revolution in England: 1688 - 1689

Between 1688 and 1689, Parliament engineered the ouster of the legitimate male line of Stuart kings and imported a new Protestant king and queen:  William III and Mary II. 

Mary II was the Protestant daughter of James II from his first wife.  William was her husband. William of Orange was the Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic and the primary opponent of the French Catholic king Louis XIV.

11. Modern World – 1500 AD Onwards

•    The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned the period roughly from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.
•    There is a consensus that the Renaissance began in Florence, Italy, in the 14th century.
•    The Renaissance saw revolutions in many intellectual pursuits, as well as social and political upheaval, it is perhaps best known for its artistic developments and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, who inspired the term "Renaissance man".
•    The word Renaissance has also been extended to other historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the Renaissance of the 12th century.

10. Medieval Japan

  • Japan consists of four islands – Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu and Shikoku.
  • The entire country was a single state till around 7th century AD.
  • In the 8th century Edo, i.e. Kyoto became the capital and was seat of emperors of Japan for more than 1000 years. The real power was in the hands of aristocratic family.
  • Shogun was one of the (usually) hereditary military dictators of Japan from 1192 to 1867. In this period, the shoguns, or their shikken regents (1203–1333), were the de facto rulers of Japan though they were nominally appointed by the emperor.

9. Medieval China

•    To prevent drain on the country’s wealth Sung ruler started the use of paper money.
•    The invention of gun powder happened in China in the 10th Century about 400 years before the knowledge reached the western world.
•    The Chinese made the iron chain suspension bridges as early as the 10 century.
•    The Chinese invented printing techniques in the 10th Century. The was as important as invention of paper.

8. Arab Civilization

•    In the 7th Century, Islam, a new religion arose in Arabia, this led to the establishment of big empire.
•    Muhammad, the prophet of Islam was born in Mecca in 571AD
•    At 40, Muhammad had ‘vision of truth’ and thus became the Prophet.
•    The vision of truth convinced him that Allah was only God.
•    He forbade the worship of idols and made many enemies. Ultimately he had leave Mecca and took refuse in Medina. This happened in 622 AD and years is termed as Hijira meaning migration and from it muslims date their era as Hijira Samvat.