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20. Turkish Revolution: 1923

•    Turkey was called ‘Sickman of Europe’.
•    The disintegration of Ottoman Empire started in 19th Century and completed after Turkey’s defeat in the first world war.
•    The allies wanted to established their domination over Turkey itself and to give away parts of Turkey to Greece and Italy.

•    The treatment meted out to Turkey by the allies had led to a mass upsurge in India directed against Britain. This upsurge is known as Khilafat Movement.
•    The nationalist movement in Turkey was organized to prevent the domination of the country by the allied powers and the annexation of parts of Turkey agreed to the terms dictated by the allied powers.
•    However, even before the treaty was signed by the Sultan, a nationalist government had been established under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Pasha with its Headquarter in Ankara.
•    Following the treaty with the Sultan, Turkey had been invaded by Greece.
•    The Turk’s under Kemal’s leadership were able to repel the invasion and the allies were forced to repudiate the earlier treaty. The allied troops were withdrawn from Turkish territory and the areas which were to be annexed by European countries remained in Turkey. Thus Turkey was able to win her complete independence.
•    The success of the Turks in winning the complete independence of their country was followed by a program to modernize Turkey and to end the influence of backward looking feudal elements.
•    Turkey was proclaimed a republic in October 29, 1923 and Kemal became the First President of Turkey. He ruled the new republic for 15 years 1923 - 38. The Turkish had carried the title of Caliph or Khalifa.
•    The new government abolished the institution of Caliph in 1924.
•    Education was taken out of the hands of religious leaders. Religion was separated from the state.
•    Mustafa Kamal Pasha is known as the Founder of the Modern Turkey and Attaturk or the Father of the Turks.

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