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Classification in Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization has three Phases

•    Early Harappan (Integration Era)
•    Mature Harappan (Localization Era)
•    Late Harappan (Regionalization Era)

Early Harappan Phase

This phase continued till 2800 BC. During this phase Trade networks had been established and there was also domestication of crops. Peas, sesame seeds, dates, cotton, etc, were grown during that time.

Mature Harappan Phase- By 2600 BC, the Indus Valley Civilization made entry into a mature stage. The early Harappan clusters started changing into urban centers, for example; Harappa and Mohenjodaro, the tow most popular cities that excavators find from Indus Valley Civilization. During this phase the concept of irrigation developed.

Notable Features of Mature Harappan Phase Indus Valley Civilization

Cities- From this phase historians claims to find approximately 1052 cities and settlements. The findings in these cities put forward to a sophisticated and technologically advanced urban culture.
Dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms and protective walls found in al the sites during excavation.

Science- Archaeological findings suggests Harappan people were among first to set standards for weights and measures. Their smallest division was approximately 1.704 mm. Decimal division of measurement was used for all practical purposes. The brick weights were in a perfect ratio of 4:2:1. New metallurgical techniques were developed for producing copper, bronze, lead and tin. Knowledge of proto-dentistry and the touchstone technique of gold testing were also popular during Mature Phase Indus Valley Civilization.

Arts and Culture- Various sculptures, seals, pottery, gold jewelry and figurines in terracotta, bronze and steatite, etc, have been excavated from the sites of the Ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Other crafts that have been unearthed include shell works, ceramics, agate, glazed steatite bead making, special kind of combs, etc. There is also evidence of seals, toys, games and stringed musical instruments in the Indus Valley.

Trade and Transportation- The main occupation of Harappan People was trade. Bullock Carts and Boats were popular form of transport. Excavators have also found dredged canal and docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal. The pottery, seals, figurines, ornaments, etc, of the civilization show great similarities with those of Central Asia and the Iranian plateau, indicating trade with them. There are also indications of maritime trade network between the Harappan and Mesopotamian civilizations.

Agriculture- The major cultivated cereal crop was naked six-row barley, a crop derived from two-row barley.

Religion- Finding suggests that the Harappan people worshipped a Mother Goddess, who symbolized fertility. Some of the seals of that time also have the swastikas engraved on them.

Late Harappan Phase

Harappan Culture declined with the passage of time, archaeological findings suggests. The signs of a gradual decline of the Indus River Valley Civilization are believed to have started around 1800 BC and by 1700 BC, most of the cities were abandoned. Archaeological data specify the perseverance of the Late Harappan culture till 1000-900 BC. The major reasons of the decline of the Harappan civilization are believed to be linked with climate change and substantial portions of the Ghaggar Hakra river system also disappeared.

Inventions of Indus Valley Civilization

Button- Buttons made from seashell, engraved into geographic shapes were used in the Indus Valley Civilization for ornamental purposes by 2000 BCE.

Cockfighting: Cockfighting was a pastime in the Indus Valley Civilization in what today is Pakistan by 2000 BCE.

Furnace: The earliest furnace was excavated at Balakot, a site of the Indus Valley Civilization in the Mansehra District in the Hazara Province of Pakistan (2500-1900 BCE).

Plough: The earliest archeological indication of an animal-drawn plough dates back to 2500 BCE in the Indus Valley Civilization in Pakistan.

Ruler: Rulers made from Ivory were in use by the Indus Valley Civilization in what today is Pakistan and some parts of Western India prior to 1500 BCE.

Stepwell: Earliest clear evidence of the origins of the stepwell is found in the Indus Valley Civilization's archaeological site at Mohenjodaro in Pakistan (2500 BCE).

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