• Its molecular formula is H2
• Hydrogen has 3 isotopes, viz; Protium 1H1; Deuterium 1H2, and Tritium 1H3. The tritium 1H3 is radioactive hydrogen.
• Protium is only one isotope in periodic table having no neutrons.
• Deuterium Oxide also known as heavy water is uses in nuclear reactor as moderator.
• Liquid Hydrogen is used as rocket fuel.
Water Molecular Formula H2O
• Water is a chemical substance with the chemical formula H2O.
• A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds.
• Water is a liquid at temperatures above 0 °C (273.15 K, 32 °F) at sea level, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam). Water also exists in a liquid crystal state near hydrophilic surfaces.
• Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface, and is vital for all known forms of life
Oxygen; Molecular Formula O2
Oxygen is a chemical element with the chemical symbol O and atomic number 8. Oxygen is the most common element on Earth, and the second most common element in Earth's atmosphere (second to nitrogen). It composes around 49% of the mass of Earth's crustand 28% of the mass of Earth as a whole, and is the third most common element in the universe. On Earth, it is usually covalently or ionically bonded to other elements.
Oxygen is slightly soluble in water. At 25° C under 1 atm of air, a litre of water will dissolve about 6.04 cc (8.63 mg, 0.270 mmol) of oxygen, whereas sea water will dissolve about 4.9 cc (7.0 mg, 0.22 mmol). At 0° C the solubility increases to 10.29 cc (14.7 mg, 0.460 mmol) for water and 8.0 cc (11.4 mg, 0.36 mmol) for sea water.
Ammonia Molecular Formula NH3
• Most of the ammonia used in the world is used in fertilizer either in salt or liquid form.
• Almost all synthetically derived nitrogen is made from ammonia. Nitric acid is used in fertilizers and explosives.
• Household ammonia is used as a surface cleaner in a diluted form. It most commonly used to clean glass, porcelain and stainless steel as it leaves no streaks.
• Ammonia is the main ingredient in most oven cleaners.
• Ammonia is used in industrial refrigeration applications and hockey rinks as it has favorable vaporization properties.
• It is used in geothermal power plants in an ammonia-water mixture that is boiled.
• Ammonia is used to scrub Sulfur dioxide from the burning fossil fuels used in power plants. It is also used to neutralize the nitrogen oxide produced by diesel engines.
• It is used in animal feed as an antimicrobial. It is also used to disinfect beef products before sale.
• Liquid ammonia is used in textiles to treat cotton materials and in the pre-washing of wool.
Originally, phosphorus was extracted from urine. However there is plenty of phosphorus in phosphate ores and those ores represent the usual source for commercially produced phosphorus. There is normally no need to make phosphorus in the laboratory as it is readily available commercially.
Phosphorus is an essential mineral that is required by every cell in the body for normal function. The majority of the phosphorus in the body is found as phosphate (PO4). Approximately 85% of the body's phosphorus is found in bone.
The halogens are five non-metallic elements i.e. Fluorine; Chlorine; Brobine; Iodine and Astatine found in group 17 of the periodic table. All halogens have 7 electrons in their outer shells, giving them an oxidation number of -1. The halogens exist, at room temperature, in all three states of matter:
• Solid- Iodine, Astatine
• Liquid- Bromine
• Gas- Fluorine, Chlorine
These are group 18 elements in the periodic table also known as Noble Gases or Zero Group Elements. All these elements are naturally occurring gases known as helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr), xenon (Xe), and the radioactive radon (Rn).
Except Radon, all inert gases are found in atmosphere.
Argon is used Arc, welding and electric bulb.
Helium is light and non inflammable, hence suitable for uses in balloons, weather indicator etc.
Neon is used in discharge tube glow lights.