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General Knowledge for Competitive Examinations

General Knowledge (GK) makes Integral Part of many competitive examinations in India. The GK Test examine your awareness and abilities fr...

Monday, December 4, 2017


Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount (biomass), number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems.
A person who studies Ecology is called Ecologist. Ecologists explains about the following:

•    Life processes and adaptations
•    Distribution and abundance of organisms
•    The movement of materials and energy through living communities
•    The successional development of ecosystems, and
•    The abundance and distribution of biodiversity in context of the environment.

Tansely coined the term Ecology.

Ecosystem is build of two components –
1.    biotic component (living part), and
2.    abiotic component (non living part)

Biotic components are divided over three groups-
1.    Producer, 2. Consumer, and 3. Decomposer

Producer- Under this category comes components which are able to make their own food e.g. plants.

Consumer- The ecological components that take the food made by plants are called consumer. These are of three types –
Primary consumers – In this category comes those organisms comes which lives on leaves of green plants or over some parts of them.
Secondary Consumer- In this category includes those organisms includes which depends on primary consumers for their food. Example – fox, wolf, peacock etc.
Tertiary Consumers – In this category includes those organisms which depends on secondary consumers, example; Tiger, Lion, Cheetah etc.
Decomposers – Mainly Fungi and Bacteria comes under this category. These have the abilities to decompose dead producers and consumers and change them into physical elements.

Abiotic components – These components are as follows –

Carbonic substance, 2. non carbonic substance, 3. climatic factor; example – water, light, temperature, air, humidity, minerals etc.

Food Chain – The transfer of energy from the producer through a series of organisms is defined as Food Chain.