Showing posts with label Botany. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Botany. Show all posts

General Knowledge for Competitive Examinations

General Knowledge (GK) makes Integral Part of many competitive examinations in India. The GK Test examine your awareness and abilities from in and around your surroundings. In this portion questions are asked from day to day life experiences. Generally, whether its and admission test or recruitment exam questions are asked from the areas those we discuss often among friends, family, or listen over radio, television and social media etc.


Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into a natural environment that causes instability, disorder of brain, harm or discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. Pollution can take the form of chemical substances or energy, such as noise, heat or light. Pollutants, the components of pollution, can be either foreign substances/energies or naturally occurring contaminants. Pollution is often classified as point source or nonpoint source pollution.

Nitrogen Cycle

The nitrogen cycle is the process by which nitrogen is converted between its various chemical forms. This transformation can be carried out by both biological and non-biological processes. Important processes in the nitrogen cycle include fixation, mineralization, nitrification, and denitrification. The majority of Earth's atmosphere (approximately 78%) is nitrogen, making it the largest pool of nitrogen. A 2011 study found that nitrogen from rocks may also be a significant source of nitrogen.


Ecology is the scientific study of the relations that living organisms have with respect to each other and their natural environment. Variables of interest to ecologists include the composition, distribution, amount (biomass), number, and changing states of organisms within and among ecosystems.

Some Amazing Plant’s Facts

  • Venus-fy-trap, pitcher plant, bladder wort etc are insect eating plants, they derive thier nitrogen from them.
  • In California's Wheeler Park, there is a Bristlecone pine tree with an estimated age of 5,000 years.
  • An american coast red wood reaches a height of 110 m.

Plant Diseases

Like humans, diseases also affects plant kingdom. Following given some commonly occurring diseases in plant kingdom.

1. Viral Disease- Here given some viral diseases of plants.

Mosaic disease of tobacco- This disease caused by Tobaco Mosaic Virus (TMV). When affected the leaves of a plant get shrinked and small. The chlorophyll of the leaves damaged. To control this disease from spreading, the affected plants should be burnt.

Plant Hormone

The Charles Darwin was the first scientist to dabble in Plant Hormone Research.
Darwin in his book "The Power of Movement in Plants" presented in 1880 first describes the effects of light on movement of canary grass (Phalaris canariensis) coleoptiles. Following 5 types of hormones are found in plants-


Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of sugar. This process occurs in plants and some algae. Plants need only light energy, CO2, and H2O to make sugar. The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts, specifically using chlorophyll, the green pigment involved in photosynthesis.

Plant Tissue

  • Tissues are sets of cells which are build of atoms and elements at the most basic level.
  • Plants are build of mainly three parts- roots, stems and leaves and these parts of plants are made of tissues to work together.
  • Scientists classify plant tissues on the basis of structure and function.

Some Common Fruits/Type of Fruits & Their Edible Parts

Type Of Fruits
Edible Parts
Apple, Pear
Fleshy thalamus
cotyledons, fleshy thalamus

Plant Morphology

Plant morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants. This is usually considered distinct from plant anatomy, which is the study of the internal structure of plants, especially at the microscopic level. Plant morphology is useful in the identification of plants.


•    Bacteria were discovered by Antony von Lecuwenhoek in 1829; he is regarded as Father of Bacteriology.
•    The Bacteriology is the scientific study of Bacteria.
•    The Robert Koch (1812-1892) discovered the bacteria of Tuberculosis disease.
•    The Louis Pasteur (1812-1892) discovered the vaccine of rabies and pasteurization of milk.


  • The systematic study of Virus is called virology.
  • A virus is both a living and non living, thus it’s a connecting link between living and non living.
  • Viruses may infect all types of organisms; animals, plants, bacteria and archae.

Functions of carbohydrates

As a source of energy: The main function of carbohydrate is to supply energy for the body processes. A greater part of the energy in the diet i.e more than 50-80%) is supplied by carbohydrates. Some of the carbohydrates are immediately utilized by the tissues and the remaining is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles and some are stored as adipose tissues for future energy needs.