A person who studies Ecology is called Ecologist. Ecologists explains about the following:
• Life processes and adaptations
• Distribution and abundance of organisms
• The movement of materials and energy through living communities
• The successional development of ecosystems, and
• The abundance and distribution of biodiversity in context of the environment.
Tansely coined the term Ecology.
Ecosystem is build of two components –
1. biotic component (living part), and
2. abiotic component (non living part)
Biotic components are divided over three groups-
1. Producer, 2. Consumer, and 3. Decomposer
Producer- Under this category comes components which are able to make their own food e.g. plants.
Consumer- The ecological components that take the food made by plants are called consumer. These are of three types –
Primary consumers – In this category comes those organisms comes which lives on leaves of green plants or over some parts of them.
Secondary Consumer- In this category includes those organisms includes which depends on primary consumers for their food. Example – fox, wolf, peacock etc.
Tertiary Consumers – In this category includes those organisms which depends on secondary consumers, example; Tiger, Lion, Cheetah etc.
Decomposers – Mainly Fungi and Bacteria comes under this category. These have the abilities to decompose dead producers and consumers and change them into physical elements.
Abiotic components – These components are as follows –
Carbonic substance, 2. non carbonic substance, 3. climatic factor; example – water, light, temperature, air, humidity, minerals etc.
Food Chain – The transfer of energy from the producer through a series of organisms is defined as Food Chain.