Skip to main content

GRE Subject Test: Biology

What is the test pattern for GRE Biology

No. of Questions 190
Each question contains 5 choices

Syllabus & Question Paper Pattern

I. CELLULAR AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (33–34%)

Fundamentals of cellular biology, genetics and molecular biology are addressed. Major topics in cellular structure and function include prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, metabolic pathways and their regulation, membrane dynamics and cell surfaces, organelles, cytoskeleton, and cell cycle. Major areas in genetics and molecular biology include viruses, chromatin and chromosomal structure, genomic organization and maintenance, and the regulation of gene expression. The cellular basis of immunity and the mechanisms of antigen-antibody interactions are included. Attention is also given to experimental methodology.

    Cellular Structure and Function (16–17%)
        Biological compounds
            Macromolecular structure and bonding
            Abiotic origin of biological molecules
        Enzyme activity, receptor binding, and regulation
        Major metabolic pathways and regulation
            Respiration, fermentation, and photosynthesis
            Synthesis and degradation of macromolecules
            Hormonal control and intracellular messengers
        Membrane dynamics and cell surfaces
            Transport, endocytosis, and exocytosis
            Electrical potentials and transmitter substances
            Mechanisms of cell recognition, intercellular transport and communication
            Cell wall and extracellular matrix
        Organelles: structure, function, synthesis, and targeting
            Nucleus, mitochondria, and plastids
            Endoplasmic reticulum and ribosomes
            Golgi apparatus and secretory vesicles
            Lysosomes, peroxisomes, and vacuoles
        Cytoskeleton: motility and shape
            Actin-based systems
            Microtubule-based systems
            Intermediate filaments
            Bacterial flagella and movement
        Cell cycle: growth, division, and regulation (including signal transduction)
        Methods
            Microscopy (e.g., electron, light, fluorescence)
            Separation (e.g., centrifugation, gel filtration, PAGE, fluorescence-activated cell sorting [FACS])
            Immunological (e.g., Western Blotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence)
    Genetics and Molecular Biology (16–17%)
        Genetic foundations
            Mendelian inheritance
            Pedigree analysis
            Prokaryotic genetics (transformation, transduction and conjugation)
            Genetic mapping
        Chromatin and chromosomes
            Nucleosomes
            Karyotypes
            Chromosomal aberrations
            Polytene chromosomes
        Genome sequence organization
            Introns and exons
            Single-copy and repetitive DNA
            Transposable elements
        Genome maintenance
            DNA replication
            DNA mutation and repair
        Gene expression and regulation in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: mechanisms
            The operon
            Promoters and enhancers
            Transcription factors
            RNA and protein synthesis
            Processing and modifications of both RNA and protein
        Gene expression and regulation: effects
            Control of normal development
            Cancer and oncogenes
            Whole genome expression (e.g., microarrays)
            Regulation of gene expression by RNAi (e.g., siRNA)
            Epigenetics
        Immunobiology
            Cellular basis of immunity
            Antibody diversity and synthesis
            Antigen-antibody interactions
        Bacteriophages, animal viruses, and plant viruses
            Viral genomes, replication, and assembly
            Virus-host cell interactions
        Recombinant DNA methodology
            Restriction endonucleases
            Blotting and hybridization
            Restriction fragment length polymorphisms
            DNA cloning, sequencing, and analysis
            Polymerase chain reaction

II. ORGANISMAL BIOLOGY (33–34%)

The structure, physiology, behavior and development of organisms are addressed. Topics covered include nutrient procurement and processing, gas exchange, internal transport, regulation of fluids, control mechanisms and effectors, and reproduction in autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. Examples of developmental phenomena range from fertilization through differentiation and morphogenesis. Responses to environmental stimuli are examined as they pertain to organisms. Major distinguishing characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of organisms are also covered.

    Animal Structure, Function and Organization (10%)
        Exchange with environment
            Nutrient, salt, and water exchange
            Gas exchange
            Energy
        Internal transport and exchange
            Circulatory, respiratory, excretory, and digestive systems
        Support and movement
            Support systems (external, internal, and hydrostatic)
            Movement systems (flagellar, ciliary, and muscular)
        Integration and control mechanisms
            Nervous and endocrine systems
        Behavior (communication, orientation, learning, and instinct)
        Metabolic rates (temperature, body size, and activity)
    Animal Reproduction and Development (6%)
        Reproductive structures
        Meiosis, gametogenesis, and fertilization
        Early development (e.g., polarity, cleavage, and gastrulation)
        Developmental processes (e.g., induction, determination, differentiation, morphogenesis, and metamorphosis)
        External control mechanisms (e.g., photoperiod)
    Plant Structure, Function, and Organization, with Emphasis on Flowering Plants (7%)
        Organs, tissue systems, and tissues
        Water transport, including absorption and transpiration
        Phloem transport and storage
        Mineral nutrition
        Plant energetics (e.g., respiration and photosynthesis)
    Plant Reproduction, Growth, and Development, with Emphasis on Flowering Plants (5%)
        Reproductive structures
        Meiosis and sporogenesis
        Gametogenesis and fertilization
        Embryogeny and seed development
        Meristems, growth, morphogenesis, and differentiation
        Control mechanisms (e.g., hormones, photoperiod, and tropisms)
    Diversity of Life (6%)
        Archaea
            Morphology, physiology, and identification
        Bacteria
            Morphology, physiology, pathology, and identification
        Protista
            Protozoa, other heterotrophic Protista (slime molds and Oomycota), and autotrophic Protista
            Major distinguishing characteristics
            Phylogenetic relationships
            Importance (e.g., eutrophication, disease)
        Fungi
            Distinctive features of major phyla (vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction)
            Generalized life cycles
            Importance (e.g., decomposition, biodegradation, antibiotics, and pathogenicity)
            Lichens
        Animalia with emphasis on major phyla
            Major distinguishing characteristics
            Phylogenetic relationships
        Plantae with emphasis on major phyla
            Alternation of generations
            Major distinguishing characteristics
            Phylogenetic relationships

III. ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION (33–34%)

The interactions of organisms and their environment, emphasizing biological principles at levels above the individual are addressed. Ecological topics range from physiological adaptations to the functioning of ecosystems. Although principles are emphasized, some questions may consider applications to current environmental problems. Topics in evolution range from genetic foundations through evolutionary processes and to their consequences. Evolution is considered at the molecular, individual, population and higher levels. Some quantitative skills, including the interpretation of simple mathematical models, may be required.

    Ecology (16–17%)
        Environment/organism interaction
            Biogeographic patterns
            Physiological ecology
            Temporal patterns (e.g., seasonal fluctuations)
        Behavioral ecology
            Habitat selection
            Mating systems
            Social systems
            Resource acquisition
        Population ecology
            Population dynamics/regulation
            Demography and life history strategies
        Community ecology
            Direct and indirect interspecific interactions
            Community structure and diversity
            Change and succession
        Ecosystems
            Productivity and energy flow
            Chemical cycling
    Evolution (16–17%)
        Genetic variability
            Origins (mutations, linkage, recombination, and chromosomal alterations)
            Levels (e.g., polymorphism and heritability)
            Spatial patterns (e.g., clines and ecotypes)
            Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium
        Macroevolutionary and microevolutionary processes
            Gene flow and genetic drift
            Natural selection and its dynamics
            Levels of selection (e.g., individual and group)
            Trade-offs and genetic correlations
            Natural selection and genome evolution
            Synonymous vs. nonsynonymous nucleotide ratios
        Evolutionary consequences
            Fitness and adaptation
            Speciation
            Systematics and phylogeny
            Convergence, divergence, and extinction
            Coevolution
        History of life
            Origin of life
            Fossil record
            Paleontology and paleoecology
            Lateral transfer of genetic sequences

Source: www.gre.org

Popular posts from this blog

B.Arch Colleges in Uttar Pradesh (UP)

List of Colleges in Uttar Pradesh (UP) for Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch) Program

Faculty of Architecture
Gautam Buddh Technical University

Tagore Marg
LUCKNOW-226 007 (Uttar Pradesh)
Ph: 0522-2740236 (EPBX), 2740152 (Office)
Fax: 0522-2740152
E-Mail: gcamukul@yahoo.co.in

B.Arch Colleges in Tamil Nadu (TN)

List of Colleges in Tamil Nadu (TN) for Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch) Program

School of Architecture & Planning
Anna University
, Sardar Patel Road
CHENNAI-600 025 (Tamil Nadu)
Tel. (O): 044-22203703, 22203700,22201226
22351323, Fax: 044-22201226, 22352341
E-Mail: tn01sap@annauniv.edu,
E-Mail: mddevadas@annauniv.edu
Web: www.annauniv.sap.edu

B.Arch Colleges in Kerala

List of Colleges in Kerala for Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch) Program

School of Architecture
College of Engineering
,
Engineering College P.O.
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM-685 016 (Kerala)
Tel. (O): 0471-2515565,2515538
Fax: 0471-2598370
E-Mail: kl01archi@gmail.com
E-Mail: kl01arch@cet.ac.in