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Biology of Cell

•    Cell is main basic structural unit of all organisms, microscopic in nature, it contains cytoplasmic material and nuclear material in a semi permeable membrane, this membrane is called cell wall in case of plants.

•    Biological organisms may contain a single cell (unicellur) or multiple cell (multicellur).

•    Each cell in organisms works like a programmable chipset to function; it takes nutrients, converts nutrients into energy and performs specialized tasks necessary for life.

•    Robert Hooke discovered the cell in 1665.

•    First Cell Theory was developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann.


•    The major examples of unicellular or single cell organisms are bacteria.

•    The example of multicellular organisms is plants and animal.

•    Humans contain about 10 trillion (1013) cells.

•    Most plant and animal cells are between 1 and 100 ┬Ám in size and therefore are visible only under the microscope


Classification of Cell


•    Cells are widely classified into two groups, the prokaryotic cell and the eukaryotic cell. The major difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound compartments in which specific metabolic activities take place.

The prokaryote cell

•    These are simple and smaller cell in which nucleus is absent. These two types of prokaryotic i.e bacteria and archaea; these shares similar structure.

•    The nuclear material of prokaryotic cell consist of a single chromosome that is in direct contact with cytoplasm. The undefined nuclear region in the cytoplasm is called nucleoid.

The Eukaryotic Cell


Plants, animals, fungi, slime moulds, protozoa, & algae are all Eukaryotic.

Difference Between Prokaryoti Cell and Eukaryotic Cell On The Basis Of Cell Structure



Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cell Structure

Cell Structure
Prokaryotic Cell
Typical Animal Eukaryotic Cell
Cell Membrane
Yes
Yes
Cell Wall
Yes
No
Centrioles
No
Yes
Chromosomes
One long DNA strand
Many
Cilia or Flagella
Yes, simple
Yes, complex
Endoplasmic Reticulum
No
Yes (some exceptions)
Golgi Complex
No
Yes
Lysosomes
No
Common
Mitochondria
No
Yes
Nucleus
No
Yes
Peroxisomes
No
Common
Ribosomes
Yes
Yes



























Cell Membrane


•    The cell membrane is a thin semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell.
•    The function of cell membrane to let in desirable substances and disallow non desirable substances from entering inside a cell.
•    The cell membrane is responsible to help support the cell and help maintain its shape. Animal cells, plant cells, prokaryotic cells, and fungal cells have cell membranes.


Cell Wall

•    The cell wall is rigid (up to many micrometers in thickness) and gives plant cells a much defined shape.
•    Most cells have an outer membrane.
•    The plant cell wall is many times rigid than animal cell wall.
•    The cell wall is the reason for the difference between plant and animal cell functions.
•    The rigid structure of the cell wall in plants is the reason that plants have no nervous systems, immune systems, and most importantly, no mobility.

Centrioles


•    Centrioles are cylinder like structures which are made of groupings of microtubules arranged in a 9 + 3 pattern.
•    The pattern is named 9+3 because a ring of nine microtubule "triplets" are arranged at right angles to one another.

Chromosomes and Sex


•    Chromosomes are long, stringy aggregates of genes responsible for holding heredity information.
•    Chromosomes are composed of DNA and proteins and found located within the nucleus of our cells.
•    Chromosomes determine everything from hair color and eye color to sex.
•    Whether you are a male or female depends on the presence or absence of certain chromosomes.
•    Human cells contain 23 pairs of chromosomes thus a total of 46.
•    There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes in humans.
•    The sex chromosomes are the X chromosome and the Y chromosome.

Cilia and Flagella


•    Cilia and flagella are protrusions from some cells that aid in cellular locomotion. They are formed from specialized groupings of microtubules called basal bodies.
•    If the protrusions are short and numerous they are termed cilia. If they are longer and less numerous (usually only one or two) they are termed flagella.

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)


•    The endoplasmic reticulum is a network of tubules and flattened sacs responsible for different cell functions.
•    of functions in the cell.
•    There are two regions of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) that differ in both structure and function.
•    One region is called rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) because it has ribosomes attached to the cytoplasmic side of the membrane.
•    The other region is called smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) because it lacks attached ribosomes.
•    Typically, the smooth ER is a tubule network and the rough ER is a series of flattened sacs.
•    The space inside of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) is called the lumen.

Golgi Complex

•    The Golgi complex also called Golgi apparatus
•    It is responsible for manufacturing, warehousing, and transporting certain cellular products, and mainly those which comes from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
•    The number of Golgi complex in a cell depends on complexity of the cell.
•    Cells which usually secrets out many substances contain more number of Golgi complexes.

Lysosomes

•    Lysosomes are membranous pouches of enzymes.
•    These enzymes are typically hydrolytic and can digest cellular macromolecules.

Mitochondria


•    Mitochondria are known as power houses of cells.
•    These are found in cytoplasm.
•    These are responsible to convert energy into such forms which can be used by a cell. Mitochondria are also responsible for cell division, cell growth and cell death.

The Nucleus

•    The nucleus is a membrane bound structure which contains the hereditary information of cell.
•    Nucleus also controls cell growth and cell reproduction.
•    Nucleus is commonly the most important organelle in the cell.

Peroxisomes

•    Peroxisomes are microbodies. They are bound by a single membrane and contain enzymes that produce hydrogen peroxide as a by-product.

Ribosomes


•    Ribosomes are organelles which consist of RNA a protein. They are responsible for assembling the proteins of the cell. Depending on the protein production level of a particular cell, ribosomes may number in the millions.



The numbers of chromosomes in different plants, animals, protists, and other living organisms, given as the diploid number (2n) along with scientific names.


Organism
Scientific name
Diploid number of chromosomes

African Wild Dog
Lycaon pictus
78

Alfalfa
Medicago sativa
32

American Badger
Taxidea taxus
32

American Marten
Martes americana
38

American Mink
Neovison vison
30

Aquatic Rat
Anotomys leander
92

Thale Cress
Arabidopsis thaliana
10

Barley
Hordeum vulgare
14

Bat-eared Fox
Otocyon megalotis
72

Bean
Phaseolus sp.
22

Beaver (American)
Castor canadensis
40

Beaver (Eurasian)
Castor fiber
48

Beech Marten
Martes foina
38

Bengal Fox
Vulpes bengalensis
60

Bittersweet nightshade
Solanum dulcamara
24

Black nightshade
Solanum nigrum
72

Moonworts
Botrychium
90

Nagaho-no-natsu-no-hana-warabi
Botrypus strictus
88

Rattlesnake fern
Botrypus virginianus
184

Cabbage
Brassica oleracea
18

Cannabis
Cannabis sativa
20

Carp

104

Capuchin Monkey
Cebus x
54

Cat
Felis catus
38

Chicken
Gallus gallus domesticus
78

Chimpanzee
Pan troglodytes
48

Chinchilla
Chinchilla lanigera
64

Coatimundi

38

Cotton
Gossypium hirsutum
52

Cow
Bos primigenius
60

Coyote
Canis latrans
78

Deer Mouse
Peromyscus maniculatus
48

Dhole
Cuon alpinus
78

Dingo
Canis lupus dingo
78

Dog
Canis lupus familiaris
78

Dolphin
Delphinidae Delphis
44

Donkey
Equus africanus asinus
62

Dove

78

Fruit fly
Drosophila melanogaster
8

Duck-billed Platypus

52

Earthworm
Lumbricus terrestris
36

Echidna

63/64

Elephant

56

Elk (Wapiti)
Cervus canadensis
68

Eurasian Badger
Meles meles
44

European honey bee
Apis mellifera
32

European Mink
Mustela lutreola
38

European Polecat
Mustela putorius
40

Fennec Fox
Vulpes zerda
64

Ferret
Mustela putorius furo
40

Field Horsetail
Equisetum arvense
216

Fisher (animal)

38

Fossa
Cryptoprocta ferox
42

Giraffe
Giraffa camelopardalis
62

Goat

60

Golden Jackal
Canis aureus
78

Gorilla

48

Gray Fox
Urocyon cinereoargenteus
66

Gypsy moth

62

Hawkweed

8

Hare

48

Hedgehog Genus Atelerix (African hedgehogs)

90

Hedgehog Genus Erinaceus (Woodland hedgehogs)

88

Kamraj (fern)
Helminthostachys zeylanica
94

Horse
Equus ferus caballus
64

Human
Homo sapiens
46

Husk Tomato
Physalis pubescens
24

Hyena

40

Hyrax

 ??

Crab-eating rat (semiaquatic rodent)
Ichthyomys pittieri
92

Jack jumper ant
Myrmecia pilosula
2

Kangaroo

16

Kit Fox

50

Lion
Panthera leo
38

Long-nosed Cusimanse (a type of mongoose)

36

Maize
Zea mays
20

Maned Wolf
Chrysocyon brachyurus
76

Mango
Mangifera indica
40

Meerkat
Suricata suricatta
36

Mosquito
Aedes aegypti
6

Mouse
Mus musculus
40

Mule

63

Oats
Avena sativa
42

Adders-tongue
Ophioglossum reticulatum
1200 or 1260

Orangutan
Pongo x
48

Oriental Small-clawed Otter
Aonyx cinerea
38

Pea
Pisum sativum
14

Pig

38

Pigeon

80

Pine Marten
Martes martes
38

Pineapple
Ananas comosus
50

Platypus
Ornithorhynchus anatinus
52

Potato
Solanum tuberosum
48

Porcupine
Erethizon dorsatum
34

Rabbit

44

Raccoon
Procyon lotor
38

Raccoon Dog
Nyctereutes viverrinus
42

Raccoon Dog
Nyctereutes procyonoides
56

Radish
Raphanus sativus
18

Rat

42

Red Deer
Cervus elaphus
68

Red Fox
Vulpes vulpes
34

Red Panda

36

Reeves's Muntjac
Muntiacus reevesi
46

Rice
Oryza sativa
24

Rhesus Monkey

42

Rye
Secale cereale
14

Sable
Martes zibellina
38

Sable Antelope
Hippotragus niger
46

Grape ferns
Sceptridum
90

Sea Otter

38

Silverleaf nightshade
Solanum elaeagnifolium
24

Sheep

54

Shrimp
Penaeus semisulcatus
86-92

Slime Mold
Dictyostelium discoideum
12

Snail

24

Spotted Skunk
Spilogale x
64

Starfish

36

Striped skunk
Mephitis mephitis
50

Swamp Wallaby
Wallabia bicolor
10/11

Tanuki/Raccoon Dog
Nyctereutes procyonoides albus
38

Tiger
Panthera tigris
38

Tibetan Sand fox
Vulpes ferrilata
36

Tobacco
Nicotiana tabacum
48

Turkey

80

Virginia Opossum
Didelphis virginiana
22

Wheat
Triticum aestivum
42

White-tailed deer
Odocoileus virginianus
70

Wolf
Canis lupus
78

Woolly Mammoth
Mammuthus primigenius
58

Wolverine
Gulo gulo
42

Yellow Mongoose
Cynictis penicillata
36

Yeast
Saccharomyces cerivisiae
32



The Nucleic Acids

•    The Nucleic Acid is complex organic material found in cells; its building blocks of living organisms.
•    The Nucleic Acid holds complex genetic information in coded manner.
•    These are of two types- 1. DNA and 2. RNA

DNA or Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid


•    Frederic Meischer isolated DNA from nucleus of pus cell.
•    DNA is a macromolecule which holds larger numbers of Nucleotides.
•    The Nucleotides contains three components: the nitrogen base, sugar and phosphate group.
•    Nitrogen bases are of two types- Purines and Pyrimidines. Purines hold two nitrogen bases, Adinine and Guanine. However, Pyrimidine nitrogen bases Thymine and Cytosine. Thus there found four types of nucleotides present in DNA.
•    Watson and Crick give the structural model of DNA
•    Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people.


RNA or Ribo Nucleic acid (RNA)


•    RNA is consists of a long chain of nucleotide units. Each nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a ribose sugar, and a phosphate.
•    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) has the bases adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil (U).

•    RNA is transcribed from DNA by enzymes called RNA polymerases and is generally further processed by other enzymes.
•    RNA is central to protein synthesis in organisms.
•    RNA has three types mRNA (messenger RNA), rRNA (ribosomal RNA) and tRNA (transfer RNA).
•    mRNA (messenger RNA)- carries messages from DNA present in nucleus to cytoplasm in coded manner.
•    rRNA (ribosomal RNA)- found in ribosome responsible for synthesis of protein in the body.
•    tRNA (transfer RNA)- responsible to transfer amino acid to ribosome.

Difference between DNA and RNA


•    RNA consists of ribose sugar while DNA has deoxiribose.
•    DNA is double stranded while RNA is single stranded.
•    DNA is stable in alkaline conditions while RNA is not.
•    DNA performs long term storage and transfer of genetic information while RNA performs the function of a messenger between DNA and the protein system complexes known as ribosomes.

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