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Vitamins

A vitamin is an organic compound required as a vital nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism.

The discovery dates of the different types of vitamins and their sources
 


Year of discovery
Vitamin
Food source
1913
Vitamin A (Retinol)
Cod liver oil
1910
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Rice bran
1920
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
Citrus, most fresh foods
1920
Vitamin D (Calciferol)
Cod liver oil
1920
Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
Meat, eggs
1922
Vitamin E (Tocopherol)
Wheat germ oil, unrefined vegetable oils
1926
Vitamin B12 (Cobalamins)
liver, eggs, animal products
1929
Vitamin K1 (Phylloquinone)
Leafy green vegetables
1931
Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)
Meat, whole grains,
in many foods
1931
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Meat, dairy products, eggs
1934
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
Meat, dairy products
1936
Vitamin B3 (Niacin)
Meat, eggs, grains
1941
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)
Leafy green vegetables
  

List of vitamins; Recommended Dosage, Deficiency Diseases, Upper Intake Limit, Disease due to overdose and source of vitamins 
Each vitamin is typically used in multiple reactions, and, therefore, most have multiple functions.



Vitamin generic
descriptor name
Recommended dietary allowances
(male, age 19–70)
Deficiency disease
Upper Intake Level
(UL/day)
Overdose disease
Good sources
Vitamin A
900 µg
Night-blindness, Hyperkeratosis, and Keratomalacia
3,000 µg
Hypervitaminosis A
Orange, ripe yellow fruits, leafy vegetables, carrots, pumpkin, squash, spinach, liver
Vitamin B1
1.2 mg
Beriberi, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
N/D
Drowsiness or muscle relaxation with large doses.
Pork, oatmeal, brown rice, vegetables, potatoes, liver, eggs
Vitamin B2
1.3 mg
Ariboflavinosis
N/D

Dairy products, bananas, popcorn, green beans, asparagus
Vitamin B3
16.0 mg
Pellagra
35.0 mg
Liver damage (doses > 2g/day) and other problems
Meat, fish, eggs, many vegetables, mushrooms, tree nuts
Vitamin B5
5.0 mg
Paresthesia
N/D
Diarrhea; possibly nausea and heartburn.
Meat, broccoli, avocados
Vitamin B6
1.3–1.7 mg
Anemia, peripheral neuropathy
100 mg
Impairment of proprioception, nerve damage (doses > 100 mg/day)
Meat, vegetables, tree nuts, bananas
Vitamin B7
30.0 µg
Dermatitis, enteritis
N/D

Raw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, certain vegetables
Vitamin B9
400 µg
Megaloblast and Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neura tube defects
1,000 µg
May mask symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency; other effects.
Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal, liver
Vitamin B12
2.4 µg
Megaloblastic anemia
N/D
Acne-like rash [causality is not conclusively established
Meat and other animal products
Vitamin C
90.0 mg
Scurvy
2,000 mg
Vitamin C megadosage
Many fruits and vegetables, liver
Vitamin D
5.0 µg–10 µg
Rickets and Osteomalacia
50 µg
Hypervitaminosis D
Fish, eggs, liver, mushrooms
Vitamin E
15.0 mg
Deficiency is very rare; mild hemolytic anemia in newborn infants.
1,000 mg
Increased congestive heart failure seen in one large randomized study.
Many fruits and vegetables
Vitamin K
120 µg
Bleeding diathesis
N/D
Increases coagulation in patients taking warfarin
Leafy green vegetables such as spinach, egg yolks, liver


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