Some Amazing Plant’s Facts

  • Venus-fy-trap, pitcher plant, bladder wort etc are insect eating plants, they derive thier nitrogen from them.
  • In California's Wheeler Park, there is a Bristlecone pine tree with an estimated age of 5,000 years.
  • An american coast red wood reaches a height of 110 m.

Plant Diseases

Like humans, diseases also affects plant kingdom. Following given some commonly occurring diseases in plant kingdom.

1. Viral Disease- Here given some viral diseases of plants.

Mosaic disease of tobacco- This disease caused by Tobaco Mosaic Virus (TMV). When affected the leaves of a plant get shrinked and small. The chlorophyll of the leaves damaged. To control this disease from spreading, the affected plants should be burnt.

Plant Hormone

The Charles Darwin was the first scientist to dabble in Plant Hormone Research.
Darwin in his book "The Power of Movement in Plants" presented in 1880 first describes the effects of light on movement of canary grass (Phalaris canariensis) coleoptiles. Following 5 types of hormones are found in plants-


Photosynthesis is the process of converting light energy to chemical energy and storing it in the bonds of sugar. This process occurs in plants and some algae. Plants need only light energy, CO2, and H2O to make sugar. The process of photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplasts, specifically using chlorophyll, the green pigment involved in photosynthesis.

Plant Tissue

  • Tissues are sets of cells which are build of atoms and elements at the most basic level.
  • Plants are build of mainly three parts- roots, stems and leaves and these parts of plants are made of tissues to work together.
  • Scientists classify plant tissues on the basis of structure and function.

Some Common Fruits/Type of Fruits & Their Edible Parts

Type Of Fruits
Edible Parts
Apple, Pear
Fleshy thalamus
cotyledons, fleshy thalamus

Plant Morphology

Plant morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants. This is usually considered distinct from plant anatomy, which is the study of the internal structure of plants, especially at the microscopic level. Plant morphology is useful in the identification of plants.


•    Bacteria were discovered by Antony von Lecuwenhoek in 1829; he is regarded as Father of Bacteriology.
•    The Bacteriology is the scientific study of Bacteria.
•    The Robert Koch (1812-1892) discovered the bacteria of Tuberculosis disease.
•    The Louis Pasteur (1812-1892) discovered the vaccine of rabies and pasteurization of milk.


  • The systematic study of Virus is called virology.
  • A virus is both a living and non living, thus it’s a connecting link between living and non living.
  • Viruses may infect all types of organisms; animals, plants, bacteria and archae.

Introduction to Botany

  • The systematic study of plants and trees is called Botany.
  • The ophrastus is called Father of Botany.

Sex Determination in Humans

The male sex chromosome in humans if XY; the female sex chromosome is XX. In the times of gamete buildup, in male of the sperms holds X chromosome while other half holds Y chromosome. In female all gametes contains only X chromosome. When a male gamete carrying X chromosome, fertilize and ova, the result zygote developed would be a female. And When a male gamete carrying Y chromosome, fertilize and ova, the result zygote developed would be a male.

Biology of Cell

•    Cell is main basic structural unit of all organisms, microscopic in nature, it contains cytoplasmic material and nuclear material in a semi permeable membrane, this membrane is called cell wall in case of plants.

•    Biological organisms may contain a single cell (unicellur) or multiple cell (multicellur).

•    Each cell in organisms works like a programmable chipset to function; it takes nutrients, converts nutrients into energy and performs specialized tasks necessary for life.

•    Robert Hooke discovered the cell in 1665.

•    First Cell Theory was developed in 1839 by Matthias Jakob Schleiden and Theodor Schwann.

Medical Inventions and Discoveries

Adhesive plaster-covered bandages
Paul Beiersdorf
William Morton
Anthrax (vaccine)
Louis Pasteur
Joseph Lister
Artificial heart (implant, human)
Denton Cooley

Diseases Caused by Viruses in Humans

Here is a list of the diseases that viruses cause in the human body. Only proper hygiene and care can help prevent these diseases. While some of them are easily preventable and curable, some can prove to be fatal if not diagnosed and treated on time. Hence, a viral infection must never be taken lightly.

List of Diseases Caused by Bacteria

The human body is vulnerable towards bacteria. Here given diseases caused by different bacteria and affected organ

Balanced Diet

A healthy diet is one that helps maintain or improve general health. It is important for lowering many chronic health risks, such as obesity, heart disease, diabetes, hypertension and cancer. A healthy diet involves consuming appropriate amounts of all essential nutrients and an adequate amount of water. Nutrients can be obtained from many different foods, so there are numerous diets that may be considered healthy. A healthy diet needs to have a balance of macro nutrients (fats, proteins, and carbohydrates), calories to support energy needs, and micro nutrients to meet the needs for human nutrition without inducing toxicity or excessive weight gain from consuming excessive amounts.

Water and Human Body

The water is the most important nutrient and the most abundant substance in the human body.  Water comprises about three quarters of the human mass and is a major component in every cell.  In addition water is important to human health for many reasons; some of them are listed below.

Minerals and Their Function in Human Body

Calcium  >>>   Builds bones and teeth, muscle contraction, heart action, nerve impulses, blood clotting
Magnesium  >>>   Bones, liver, muscles, transfer of intercellular water, alkaline balance, neuromuscular activity
Sodium  >>>   Electrolyte balance, body fluid volume, nerve impulse condition


A vitamin is an organic compound required as a vital nutrient in tiny amounts by an organism.

The discovery dates of the different types of vitamins and their sources

Functions of Fats in the Human Body

•    Fats on oxidation provide nearly twice as much energy as that given by carbohydrates.
•    The main function of fats in the body is to provide energy: By supplying energy, fats save proteins from being used for energy and allow them to perform their more important role of building and repairing tissues.

Functions of Protein

Protein has a range of essential functions in the body, including the following:

•    Required for building and repair of body tissues (including muscle)
•    Enzymes, hormones, and many immune molecules are proteins
•    Essential body processes such as water balancing, nutrient transport, and muscle contractions require protein to function.

Functions of carbohydrates

As a source of energy: The main function of carbohydrate is to supply energy for the body processes. A greater part of the energy in the diet i.e more than 50-80%) is supplied by carbohydrates. Some of the carbohydrates are immediately utilized by the tissues and the remaining is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles and some are stored as adipose tissues for future energy needs.


The nutrients are essential for biosynthesis. To run life human beings and other organisms performs some key functions termed as nutrition. This is one of the basic functions of life in which includes intake of food, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion of food. These exist mainly three categories of substances which provide energy to body when we take food. These substances and their characteristics are discussed below.

The nervous system

The nervous system is an organ system containing a network of specialized cells called neurons that coordinate the actions of an animal and transmit signals between different parts of its body. The nervous system in humans consists of three parts, central nervous system, peripheral nervous system and automatic nervous system.

Circulatory System

•  The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids, electrolytes and lymph), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body. The circulatory system help fight diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH, and to maintain homeostasis.
•    The discovery of blood circulation or blood flow was done by William Harvey in 1628.

Major organ systems

•    Circulatory system: pumping and channeling blood to and from the body and lungs with heart, blood, and blood vessels.
•    Digestive System: digestion and processing food with salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, intestines, rectum, and anus.
•    Endocannabinoid system: neuromodulatory lipids and receptors involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, motor learning, synaptic plasticity, and memory.

Human Blood

•    Human blood is the fluid circulated by the heart through the human vascular system.

•    There are three cellular components of human blood: red blood cells (r.b.c.), white blood cells (w.b.c.), and platelets.

Introduction to Zoology

Zoology – The systematic study of the structure, form and distribution of animals is called Zoology.

The animal kingdom can be classified over two sub groups – 1. Unicellular animal; and 2. Multi-cellular animal.

Famous Quotes

Poverty is the parents of revolution and crime.
- Aristotle

He who wishes to secure the good of others has already secured his own.
- Confucius

Sacrifice that causes pain is no sacrifice at all. True sacrifice is joy-giving and uplifting.
- Mahatma Gandhi

Rise of Magadha Empire (6th Century – 4th Century BC)

Magadha Empire ruled over districts of Patna, Gaya, some parts of Shahabad and grew further to turn into a state. The Magadha Empire had gone hand to hand and attained remarkable success. Various dynasties came into existence. A brief discussion follows here.

Haryanka Dynasty: This dynasty was founded in 566 BC by the grand father of Bimbsara. According to Buddha literature Bimbasara conquered Anga state to set trade route with southern states. The Anga is now in East Bihar Region.

Mahajanapada Period (600 BC to 325 BC)

Mahājanapadas were ancient Indian Kingdoms. The word Mahajanpada derived from two words ‘maha’ meaning great and ‘janapada’ meaning foothold of people.

There are 16 Mahajanpadas according to Buddhist Text found in Anguttara Nikaya & Mahavastu and Jain Literature Bhagavati Sutta.

Here Listed the 16 Mahajanpadas, their Capitals and Locations

Later Vedic Period 1000BC – 600BC

The main sources of information regarding Later Vedic Period 1000BC – 600BC found in the Vedic texts written after the Rig Veda. These literatures were the Sam Veda Samhita, the Yajur Veda Samhita, Atharva Veda Samhita, Brahmanas and Upanishads. All these literature later Vedic texts were compiled in the upper Gangetic basin in 1000-600 BC. These literatures suggest that the Aryans during the later Vedic period shifted from the North-West to the region of the Ganges and Yamuna. The whole of North India to Central India up to the river Narmada along with some regions south of the river comprised of Aryan persuade. Archaeological excavations of Hastinapur suggests towards existence of Aryan in this region between 1000 and 700 BC. The only available remains found are shreds of painted grey pottery, a few copper implements and traces of houses made of unbaked bricks.

Early Vedic Period or Rig Vedic Period (1500BC – 1000BC)

Political Life
The rig Veda has discussion about early Vedic Period. In this period the Kingdom was tribal in nature. Each tribe made its separate kingdom. The family setting was called Kula. Number of kula together made a village or Grama. The head of a Grama was Gramani. A group of villages constituted a large unit called clan (vis) Several clans formed the tribe (Jana) Theft leader was Rajan, the Vedic king. He protected his people from enemies He was assisted by the purohita or priest, the senani of commandant, the Sabha and the Samithi in administration.

Vedic Culture (1500 BC to 600 BC)

•    It is believed that Aryans were migrated from Central Asia to India in many batches of people’s group sometimes from 2000 BC to 1500 BC.

•    The location of real home land of Aryan is still controversial.

•    Many historians believe that Aryans were Indian native, while several argue that Aryans were migrated from outside world to India.

Classification in Indus Valley Civilization

Indus Valley Civilization has three Phases

•    Early Harappan (Integration Era)
•    Mature Harappan (Localization Era)
•    Late Harappan (Regionalization Era)

Excavation Facts about Indus Valley Civilization

Various locations where excavators found proofs regarding Indus Valley Civilization are listed below-

Site- Harappa
River- Ravi
District- Montgomery
State / Province- Punjab
Country- Pakistan
Excavators- Daya Ram Sahni (1921); Madho Swroop Vatsa (1926); Wheeler (1946)

Indus Valley Civilization at a Glance

  • The Indus Valley Civilization also referred as Bronze Age Civilization (3300 – 1300 BCE Initial Phase and 2600 – 1900 BCE Matured Phase).
  • The Bronze Age also referred as Chocolithic Age or Proto-Historic Period.
  • Another name for Indus Valley Civilization is Harappan Civilization named of the first discovered site Harappa in the region.
  • The term Indus Valley Civilization first used by noted Scholar John Marshall.